Carbohydrates

anna.mat1997
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

A diagram for AQA as level biology unit - carbohydrates

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anna.mat1997
Created by anna.mat1997 over 4 years ago
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Carbohydrates
1 Monosaccharide general formula= (CH2O)n
1.1 Soluble
2 Contain 3 elements
2.1 Carbon
2.2 Hydrogen
2.3 Oxygen
3 Disaccharides formed in a condensation reaction
4 glucose+fructose=sucrose
5 glucose+galactose=lactose
6 glucose+glucose=maltose
7 Polysaccharides- insoluble
8 Starch
8.1 amylopectin
8.1.1 glucose molecules 1-4 glycosidic bonds, 1-6 after every 25
8.1.2 Branched
8.1.3 Protruding ends= fast hydrolysis --> rapid release of glucose to provide energy via respiration
8.2 Amylose
8.2.1 1-4 glycosidic bonds
8.2.2 Hydrogen bonds form a helix
8.2.3 Helix forms a compact shape which allows tight packing so is excellent for storage
8.3 Insoluble in water so good storage in plants i.e. stoma of chloroplasts
9 Glycogen
9.1 Storage in animal and fungal cells
9.2 Similar structure to amylopectin (polymer of a-glucose)
9.3 More and shorter branches than amylopectin
9.3.1 More compact
9.4 Faster hydrolysis than starch, important as animals need emergency glucose faster than plants
10 Cellulose
10.1 Structural polysaccharide in plants
10.2 Long unbranched chains of glucose linked by 1-4 glycosidic bonds
10.3 Chains linked by hydrogen bonds creating microfibrils
10.4 Hydrogen bonds prevent water from entering the molecule so it can't be broken down by enzyme hydrolysis= good structural polysaccharide
11 Carbohydrate tests
11.1 Starch-Iodine, blue/black precipitate forms
11.2 Reducing sugar- Benedicts' reagent, brick red ppt. (intensity measured by colorimeter
11.3 Non-reducimg sugar-benedicts+HCl then NaOH to neutralise. Brick red ppt.