A2 Geography: Development

mima duck
Mind Map by mima duck, updated more than 1 year ago
mima duck
Created by mima duck about 5 years ago


A-levels Geography Mind Map on A2 Geography: Development, created by mima duck on 01/01/2015.

Resource summary

A2 Geography: Development
1 Development Indicators
1.1 Economic
1.1.1 GDP Per capita from agriculture from industry from services
1.1.2 GNI Per capita
1.2 Demographic
1.2.1 total population
1.2.2 population density
1.2.3 dependency ratio
1.2.4 birth rate
1.2.5 death rate
1.2.6 urban population
1.2.7 life expectancy
1.3 Political
1.3.1 turnout rates in elections
1.3.2 electorate numbers
1.4 Social
1.4.1 HDI
1.4.2 GDI (gender)
1.4.3 food intake (cal per day per capita)
1.4.4 doctors per 100,000
1.4.5 adults living with HIV/AIDS
1.4.6 adult literacy rate
1.4.7 motor vehicles per 1,000
1.4.8 internet usage per 1,000
1.4.9 enrolment rates
1.5 Cultural
1.5.1 migration flows net immigration net emigration
1.5.2 census religion family size
1.5.3 urban population
2 Changes associated with development
2.1 Economic
2.1.1 shift in employment from agriculture to manufacturing and services
2.1.2 increase in productivity
2.1.3 international trade expands
2.1.4 income inequality often widens
2.1.5 manufacturing more technologically focused higher value added
2.2 Demographic
2.2.1 mortality rates fall improved living standard medical technology more available
2.2.2 fertility declines availability of artificial contraception lower infant mortality rates
2.2.3 increased life expectancy
2.2.4 changes summarised in DTM
2.3 Social
2.3.1 secondary education widely available especially to girls
2.3.2 changing values and lifestyles decreased tribal focus become more 'western' due to marketing of western consumer products
2.3.3 narrowing gender inequality
2.3.4 growing urban population
2.4 Political
2.4.1 education more universal
2.4.2 pressure for improved governance move towards democracy free elections increased exposure to modern media internet television
3 Modernisation
3.1 becoming more modern as a country develops
3.1.1 being like the 'west'
3.2 Economic terms
3.2.1 commercial rather than subsistence
3.2.2 industrialisation
3.2.3 urbanisation
3.2.4 increased use of technology and scientific principles
3.2.5 economic changes reflected within social and cultural spheres
3.3 Social terms
3.3.1 importance of class groups
3.3.2 lower importance of tribal affiliations
3.4 Political terms
3.4.1 democratically elected governments
3.4.2 less tribal/religious forms of organisation
3.5 many theorists attempted to model this form of development
3.5.1 best known is Walt Rostow The Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
4 Measurement of development
4.1 GNP
4.1.1 Gross National Product
4.1.2 measures value of all goods/services claimed by residents regardless of location of production
4.2 GDP
4.2.1 Gross Domestic Product
4.2.2 measures value of all goods/services produced does not matter if company/individual profiting is national or foreign
4.2.3 look at GDP of countries lower down development continuum shows investment being put into country shows true economic growth
4.2.4 GNP per capita advantages as measure of development quantitative data easy to compare and contrast easily complete statistical analysis easily present data graphical format cartographic format key measure of economic development assume 'trickle effect' disadvantages as measure of development informal economies not taken into account disadvantageous to LDCs due to nomadic and subsistence farming inflation increases GDP even if output has not mean/average figure skewed by rich masks inequalities does not allow qualitative perspective variations in currency not taken into account cost of living varies between countries LDCs investment or economic growth facilitated by TNCs/external investment not included difficult to compare economic growth
4.3 HDI
4.3.1 Human Development Index
4.3.2 3 variables Income (GDP per capita) Knowledge adult literacy rate percentage of children attending school longevity (life expectancy at birth)
4.3.3 calculating HDI highest and lowest value of each variable for all countries found country give result between 0 and 1 1 highest and 0 lowest scores for each 3 variables averaged out to give total HDI
4.3.4 advantages easy to understand provides basis for ranking countries enables comparisons of performance over time gives general indication of development enables analysis within indicator
4.3.5 disadvantages generalised measure use averages and aggregate data obscure nature and causes of development conceals geographical and social variations and inequalities accuracy of official data not always assured
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