GCSE Chemistry C1.1 - Fundamental Ideas in Chemistry

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C1.1 of second C1-C3, Chemistry GCSE

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GCSE Chemistry C1.1 - Fundamental Ideas in Chemistry
1 Subatomic Particles
1.1 Atomic Particle / Relative Charge
1.1.1 Proton Neutron Electron
1.1.2 +1 0 -1
1.2 Atomic & Mass Numbers
1.2.1 The find out the number of neutrons an atom contains = mass number - atomic number Atomic number - The amount of protons OR Electrons an atom contains Mass Number - The TOTAL amount of protons AND neutrons an atom contains - Nom of protons+Nom of neutrons
1.3 Electronic configuration
1.3.1 The first shell always contains a number of 2 electrons, the rest contains 8. For an atom that contains 6 electrons, their electronic configuration would be written as [2,6]
2 Alkali Metals (group 1)
2.1 Lithium 2,1
2.1.1 Sodium 2,8,1 Potassium 2,8,8,1
2.2 All alkali metals react violently when added to water they also always produce hydrogen gas and a metal hyrdoxide e.g.) Potassium+water-->potassium hydroxide+hydrogen
2.2.1 When the alklai metals react with oxygen they always produce a metal oxide e.g) sodium+oxygen-->sodium oxide
3 Halogens (group 7)
3.1 Flourine 2,7
3.2 Chlorine 2,8,7
4 The halogen atoms and the alkali metals with react together to form an ionic compound in which these are called halide ions and have a single negative charge.
5 Noble Gases (Group 0)
5.1 Helium 2
5.1.1 Neon 2,8 Argon 2,8,8
5.2 Noble gases are unreactive as they all have a full outer shell.
6 Mixtures and Compounds
6.1 A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds that are not chemically joined, the properties of the substances remain unchanged and specific to each substance.
6.2 A compound is a substance contains two or more elements are chemically joined together.
6.2.1 Non metal + Non metal = Covalent bonding Sharing of electrons
6.2.2 Non metal + metal = Ionic bonding gaining/losing electrons
6.3 Either way of bonding, covalent or ionic results in all outer shells being full.