1.1.1 it sits on a destructive plate
margin where the Indian plate is
being forced under the Eurasian
1.2 it is an LEDC
1.3 the earthquake
occured on the 8th
1.4 it happened
at 8:50 local
on the Richter
1.5 the focus of the earthquake was only
16 miles deep and the epicentre was
close to Muzaffarabad.
1.6 the earthquake caused a 75km long crack
to form in the earth's surface.
1.7 it caused damage
to an area of
30,000 km2 and
was felt as far
away as Kabul in
Delhi in India.
1.8 by the
at least 4
2 social impacts.
2.1 there were around
80,000 deaths, mostly
because of collapsed
2.1.1 13th highest
death toll on
2.2 hundreds of thousands of people were
injured, including 6,000 in India.
2.3 3 million made homeless.
2.4 water pipelines
2.5 landslides buried
people. they also
blocked access to
roads and cut off
2.6 diarrhoea and
spread due to a
lack of clean water.
2.7 freezing winter conditions shortly
after the earthquake caused more
casualties and meant rescue and
rebuilding operations were
2.8 only 199
3 economic impacts
3.1 it's been
3.2 whole villages and thousands of buildigns
were destroyed. for example, 80% of Uri was
3.2.1 in some areas
up to 25km from
and 50% of
3.2.2 the total cost
4 environmental impacts
4.1 landslides and rockfalls occurred throughout
4.1.1 more were relatively
small but there were two
major landslides that
each affected an area of
more than 0.1km2 - one
in Muzaffrabad and one
in the Jhelum valley.
4.2 the Jhelum Valley landslide was
gthe biggest at over 1 km wide,
the debris reached over 2 km
from the top of the slide. the
debris created a dam at the
bottom of the valley, this
blocked two rivers at their
4.3 as a result of the earthquake and surface
rupture, the ground shifted by more than 5 m in
some areas of Kashmir.
5 the response was delayed in many areas.
5.1 help didn't reach many areas for days or weeks. People had to be
rescued by hand without any equipment or help from emergency
5.2 tents blankets and medical
supplies were distributed within a
month but not to all affected areas.
5.3 the Pakistani government set up the Federal Relief Commission (FRC)
and the Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority
(ERRA) to coordinate activities with other international agencies and
5.4 international aid
such as helicopters
were brought in, as
well as teams of
people from other
5.5 around 40,000 people
have been relocated to a
new town, from the
destroyed town of
gave money to
5.7 new health
been set up in
5.8 training has
to help rebuild
6 there was no hazard management.
6.1 there was no local
disaster planning in
6.2 buildings were not designed to be
earthquake proof. many houses were
structurally poor because people
couldn't afford better buildings.
6.2.1 however, even government buildings in areas
such as Muzaffarabad were structurally unsound
and so were damaged in the earthquake.
6.3 communications were poor, there were few roads and they were badly
7 aid and responses.
7.1 $62 billion
pledged by the
7.2 locals tried
to help those
7.3 military hospitals opened for civilians.
7.4 the government did not request international assistance.