Restless Earth

Matthew Jones
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

Geography (Restless Earth) Mind Map on Restless Earth, created by Matthew Jones on 09/02/2013.

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Matthew Jones
Created by Matthew Jones about 6 years ago
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Restless Earth
1 Structure of the Earth
1.1 Crust
1.1.1 Mantle
1.1.1.1 Outer Core
1.1.1.1.1 Inner Core
1.1.2 Types of Crust
1.1.2.1 Continental Crust
1.1.2.1.1 Rock Type: Granite Thickness: 30-50km thick Density: Low Density
1.1.2.2 Oceanic Crust
1.1.2.2.1 Rock Type: Basalt Thickness: 6-8km thick Density: High Density
2 Tectonic Plates
2.1 Types of Plates
2.1.1 Oceanic Plate: A plate carrying ocean, it is younger, heavier, can sink and is constantly being recycled
2.1.2 Continental Plate: A plate carrying land, it is older, lighter, cannot sink and is permanent
2.2 Plate Boundaries
2.2.1 Collision: Where two plates are forced together creating a mountain range
2.2.2 Conservative: Where two plates slide past each other, this plat boundary can become stuck and when freed create an earthquake
2.2.3 Constructive: Where two plate move apart from each other causing magma to rise through the gap in the plates creating a volcano
2.2.4 Destructive: Where one plate is forced under another (Subduction) destroying the subducted plate creating new land and volcanoes
3 Volcanoes
3.1 State of Volcanoes
3.1.1 Active (Alive)
3.1.2 Dormant (Asleep)
3.1.3 Extinct (Dead)
3.2 Types of Volcano
3.2.1 Shield
3.2.1.1 Slow lava flow, runny lava, gentle and frequent eruptions
3.2.2 Composite
3.2.2.1 Pyroclastic flow, very destructive, can lay dormant for many years and then suddenly erupt, fast lava flow, thick lava
3.2.2.1.1 Pyroclastic Flow: A mixture of hot steam, ash, rock and dust.
4 Earthquakes
4.1 Conservative Plate Boundary
4.1.1 Two tectonic plates slide past each other and create pressure as they stick together. When the pressure is released an earthquake is released.
4.2 Ricther Scale
4.2.1 1. You wouldn't notice this.
4.2.1.1 2. Registers on seismographs
4.2.1.1.1 3. Very faint tremor felt
4.2.1.1.1.1 4. Books fall off shelves
4.2.1.1.1.1.1 5. Buildings damaged
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 6. Some building collapse
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 7. Ground can be seen shaking
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 8. Large buildings destroyed
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 9. Complete destruction
4.3 Most earthquakes are on the boundary of the Indo-Australian plate and the Pacific plate.
4.4 Earthquake Proofing Buildings
4.4.1 MEDC
4.4.1.1 Damper
4.4.1.1.1 Acts like a pendulum, reducing building sway
4.4.1.1.2 Cross Bracing
4.4.1.1.2.1 Stops floor collapsing
4.4.1.1.2.2 Shock Absorbers
4.4.1.1.2.2.1 Strong, Flexible, Steel Frame
4.4.1.1.2.2.1.1 Stops cracking
4.4.1.1.2.2.1.2 Strong Double Glazed Windows
4.4.1.1.2.2.1.2.1 Stop broken glass from showering down
4.4.1.1.2.2.1.2.2 Deep Foundations
4.4.1.1.2.2.1.2.2.1 To prevent collapse
4.4.2 LEDC
4.4.2.1 Bamboo Frame
4.4.2.1.1 Light Weight Thatch
4.4.2.1.1.1 Walls made from mud and straw
4.4.2.1.1.1.1 Concrete rings
4.4.2.1.1.1.1.1 To tie down the walls to the foundations
4.4.2.1.1.1.1.2 Steel Rod Foundations
5 Tsunamis
5.1 Made when two plates on a destructive plate boundary, get stuck and build up pressure. This pressure is then released and the oceanic plate flicks up causing a tsunami to form.
6 Case Studies
6.1 Volcano Case Stuudy
6.2 Earthquake Case Study
6.3 Enter text here

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