[AS Level ] Hard Engineering Techniques + Advantages and Disadvantages


Description of Hard Engineering Techniques + including advantages and disadvantages.
Mind Map by wing_103, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by wing_103 about 8 years ago

Resource summary

[AS Level ] Hard Engineering Techniques + Advantages and Disadvantages
  1. Embankments - Raised banks along the river
    1. can be used as a path
      1. concrete embankments can stop erosion
        1. earth embankments provide habitats for wildlife
      2. The banks are not always built high enough
        1. Concrete embankments are ugly and unnatural
      3. Channelisation - The river channel may be widened or deepened to allow it to carry more water. A channel may be straightened so that water can travel faster along the course,
        1. effectively protects immediate areas because water is moved away quickly
          1. Long lasting
          2. altering the river channel may mean greater flooding risk as the water is carried there faster
            1. Unnatural and visually intrusive
          3. Storage Areas - A large area near the river that will fill with water if the river overflows, protecting the surrounding land.
            1. Neded a large area of land that is not used
              1. Only come into use when the river has flooded
              2. Natural looking
                1. Does not damage the environment
              3. Dams - Built along the course of a river to control the discharge. Water is held back in a reservoir behind the dam and released in a controlled way.
                1. Very expensive to build
                  1. sediment is often trapped behind the dam leading to erosion further downstream
                    1. Towns and farmland may be lost when the valley is flooded to form the reservoir.
                  2. Water in the reservoir can be used to generate electricity (Hydroelectric) or for recreation)
                  3. Flood Relief Channels - The channel course can be changed to take flood waters away from towns.
                    1. Makes people who live close the the main river safer as the flood water is taken away
                      1. can be used for water sports at other times
                      2. They use up a lot of land that might be difficult to buy if it is good farmland
                        1. Extremely Expensive
                      3. Flood walls - A vertical barrier made from concrete.
                        1. They have to be assembled carefully so that water does not get through the joints
                          1. Can be used in areas where they is not much space
                            1. easily and quickly erected using pre-constructed sections
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