Middle Ages and the Renaissance (c.700-c.1500)


Bacharel Theology Mind Map on Middle Ages and the Renaissance (c.700-c.1500), created by radnorgardens on 09/03/2013.
Mind Map by radnorgardens, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by radnorgardens over 9 years ago

Resource summary

Middle Ages and the Renaissance (c.700-c.1500)
  1. Tensions between the East (Constantinople/Orthodox) and the West (Rome/Catholic)
    1. Nicene Creed 'filioque (and from the Son) controversy'
      1. East: Believe the Holy Spirit only proceeds from the Father, not the Son
      2. Greek speaking vs. Latin speaking
        1. Claims of authority by the Roman Pope
          1. Split around 1054
          2. Constantinople fell to the muslims in 1453, ending the Byzantine period
            1. Started during the reign of Charlemagne
              1. Renewing of the life of the mind within the church
                1. Alcuin (735-804), Abbot of St.Martin of Tours established monastic schools and cathedral schools
                  1. The Great monastery of Fulda (744)
                    1. Critical role in bring about the theological renaissance of the 12th century
                  2. Monastic movement
                    1. Originated in Egypt and eastern Syria during the patristic period
                      1. Withdrawal from the sinful world
                        1. Significant growth during the 6th century
                        2. Benedict of Nursia (c.480-c.550)
                          1. The 'Rule of Benedict'
                            1. Unconditional following of Christ
                              1. Regular corporate and private prayer
                                1. Reading Scripture
                                2. Established Monte Cassino (529)
                              2. Religious Orders
                                1. Cistercian
                                  1. Founded 1097 at Citeaux, France
                                    1. Noted leader: Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)
                                      1. Beginning of 14th century: approx. 600 monasteries
                                        1. Emphasized Spirituality over academia
                                        2. Franciscans
                                          1. Founded by Francis of Assisi (c.1181-1226)
                                            1. Renouced a life of wealth to live in prayer and poverty
                                              1. Joined by Clare of Assisi, a former noblewoman
                                                1. Founded 'Poor Clare's'
                                              2. Referred to as the 'Gray Friars'
                                                1. Emphasis on individual and corporate prayer
                                                  1. Theologians
                                                    1. Bonaventure (1221-1274)
                                                      1. Duns Scotus (1266-1308)
                                                        1. William Ockham (c.1285-1347)
                                                      2. Domincians
                                                        1. Founded by Spainard Dominic de Guzman (1170-1221)
                                                          1. Referred to as the 'Black Friars'
                                                            1. Focus on education
                                                              1. Theologians
                                                                1. Albert the Great (c.1200-1280)
                                                                  1. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
                                                                    1. Peter of Tarantaise (1102-1074)
                                                                  2. Augustinians
                                                                    1. Theologians
                                                                      1. Giles of Rome (c.1244-1316)
                                                                        1. Thomas of Strasbourg (c.1275-1357)
                                                                    2. Scholasticism
                                                                      1. Developed between 1200-1500
                                                                        1. Emphasis of rational jusitification and the systematic presentation of those beliefs
                                                                          1. Influenced by the early church fathers, Augustine and Aristotle
                                                                            1. Influential writers
                                                                              1. Thomas Aquinas
                                                                                1. Duns Scotus
                                                                                  1. William of Ockham
                                                                                2. Italian Renaissance (14th & 15th centuries)
                                                                                  1. A return to the glories of antiquity
                                                                                    1. Byzantium/Constantinople fell and 1453
                                                                                      1. An exodus of Greek speakers settled in Italy
                                                                                        1. Led to an interest in Greek and Greek classics
                                                                                      2. They marginalised the interlectual achievements of the Middle Ages
                                                                                        1. Considered too technical
                                                                                          1. Lay the groundwork to bypass the middle ages writers and focus on Scripture and the patristic period
                                                                                            1. 'ad fontes' - back to the sources
                                                                                        2. Byzantine Theology
                                                                                          1. Rejected Catholic (western) views on the Holy Spirit & purgatory
                                                                                            1. Orientated towards the tradition of the Greek fathers
                                                                                              1. Gregory of Nyssa
                                                                                                1. Maximum the Confessor (c.580-662)
                                                                                                  1. Dionysius the Areopagite
                                                                                                  2. Theology as an expositor of faith, rather than speculative thought.
                                                                                                    1. Controversies
                                                                                                      1. Iconoclastic (725-842)
                                                                                                        1. Emperor Leo III (717-742) gave orders to destroy images to open up the conversion of Jews and Muslims
                                                                                                          1. John of Damacus defended the use of icons based on the incarnation (Christ become body and blood)
                                                                                                          2. Hesychastic (14th century)
                                                                                                            1. Inner quietness (silence) to see the 'divine light'
                                                                                                              1. Opponents disturbed that God could be 'seen'
                                                                                                              2. Adherents
                                                                                                                1. Simeon the New Theologian (949-1022)
                                                                                                                  1. Gregory Palamas (Archbishop of Thessalonika 1347)
                                                                                                                    1. Palamism - developed distinction between 'divine energy' and 'divine essence'
                                                                                                                      1. Believers were only experiencing the 'divine energy'
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