1.1 Tripple Alliance ===> Germany, Austria Hungary
Tripple Entente ===> Brittain, France, Germany
1.2 This system led to the
division of Europe into
two antagonistic power
blocs, its degree of
secrecy led to fear and
nations, and it
disputes into a general
1.3 Central Powers
1.3.1 The core of the Central
Powers was the Dual
Alliance between Germany
and Austria. The central
principle of Bismarckian
diplomacy was to maintain
an alliance with Tsarist
Russia and Austria.
1.4.1 The core of the Allies was the treaty between France and Russia.
Once the Kaiser allowed the treaty with Russia lapse, the French
immediately seized the opportunity and negotiated a treaty with
the Tsar. Republican France and Tsarist Russia may seem
unlikely allies, but the French had learned their lesson from the
Franco-Prussian War. Never again would they face the Germans
without allies. The Franco-Russian Treaty was the core of the
Allied war effort in the opening year of the War. Yet an alliance
with absolutist Tsarist Russia was an embarrassment for the Allies,
making it difficult to advance any higher principles for the War.
2 Arms Race
2.1 As economic rivalries and colonial competition
came to a boiling point, nations began to build
their military arsenals at an unprecedented rate.
Armament build-ups continued to spiral out of
control as European powers sought to gain a
military advantage over one another.
3.1 European kingdoms had given way to nation-states throughout the 1800s
following the Napoleonic Wars, lending widespread support to colonial,
economic and military expansion. The Napoleonic Wars taught
Europeans that it was critical to consolidate and strengthen one's nation
in relation to potential rivals. Furthermore, new nations and new colonial
powers such as the German Empire and Italy (formed comparatively
recently, during the mid-1800s) were especially fervent, as they had been
under foreign domination for so long, and were eager to reverse the
situation. Their tactics became increasingly brutal and hostile as they felt
compelled to play catch up with established colonial powers such as the
United Kingdom, France and Spain.