Offences Against the Person

amyclare96
Mind Map by amyclare96, updated more than 1 year ago
amyclare96
Created by amyclare96 over 5 years ago
12
2

Description

A-level Law A2 Mind Map on Offences Against the Person, created by amyclare96 on 01/30/2015.

Resource summary

Offences Against the Person
1 Section 39 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988
1.1 Assault
1.1.1 Intentionally or recklessly causing the victim to apprehend immediate or unlawful violence.

Annotations:

  • Definition
1.1.1.1 Ireland; Burstow
1.1.2 Actus Reus
1.1.2.1 1) Causing V to apprehend violence. No need for physical contact. Depends what V thought was about to happen.

Annotations:

  • Refer to case of Logdon
1.1.2.1.1 Logdon
1.1.2.1.2 Actions can suffice.
1.1.2.1.2.1 Smith
1.1.2.1.2.2 Words alone are sufficient.
1.1.2.1.2.2.1 Constanza
1.1.2.1.3 Silence
1.1.2.1.3.1 Ireland
1.1.2.1.4 No fear of violence and no anticipation= No assault
1.1.2.1.4.1 Lamb
1.1.2.2 2) Immediate Violence
1.1.2.2.1 Smith & Ireland
1.1.2.3 3) Unlawful Violence
1.1.3 Mens Rea
1.1.3.1 An Intention to cause V to apprehend unlawful and immediate violence or recklessness whether such an apprehension is caused.
1.1.3.1.1 Savage
1.1.3.1.2 Cunningham

Annotations:

  • Defined (subjective) Recklessness- causing immediate fear in V.
1.1.3.2 Direct/Oblique Intention

Annotations:

  • Oblique Intention= Foresight of Consequences Test. Refer to Nedrick/ Woolin/ Matthew & Alleyne Direct= Mohan
1.1.4 Examples
1.1.4.1 Threatening violence in e-mails, texts, letters
1.1.4.2 Throwing something that could cause injury
1.2 Battery
1.2.1 The unlawful application of force to another

Annotations:

  • Definition and actus reus element.
1.2.1.1 Actus Reus
1.2.1.1.1 Can include a slap, kiss, throwing of a drink, etc.
1.2.1.1.1.1 Thomas

Annotations:

  • Caretaker touched a student's skirt without permission.
1.2.1.1.2 Can be an omission
1.2.1.1.2.1 Santana-Bermudez

Annotations:

  • Needle and police officer case.
1.2.1.1.2.2 Can involve pain but not injury but doesn't have too.
1.2.1.1.2.2.1 Examples
1.2.1.1.2.2.1.1 Hitting someone
1.2.1.1.2.2.1.1.1 Black eye
1.2.1.1.2.2.1.2 Throwing a drink at someone and it hits them
1.2.1.1.2.2.1.3 Slight bruising
1.2.2 Mens Rea
1.2.2.1 Proof that D intentionally or recklessly applied force to V.
1.2.2.1.1 Venna
1.2.2.2 Recklessness- applying force

Annotations:

  • Cunningham
2 Section 47 of OAPA 1861
2.1 Actual Occassioning Bodily Harm (ABH)
2.1.1 Actus Reus
2.1.1.1 1) Assault= Both Assault and Battery. Either will suffice.
2.1.1.1.1 Examples
2.1.1.1.1.1 Harm to skin, flesh, bones
2.1.1.1.1.2 Extensive brusing
2.1.1.1.1.3 Loss or breaking of tooth or teeth
2.1.1.1.1.4 Temporary loss of sensory functions
2.1.1.2 2) Occasioning= Causation
2.1.1.3 3) Actual Bodily Harm
2.1.1.3.1 Chan- Fook
2.1.1.3.1.1 'Injury should not be so trivial as to be wholly insignificant'

Annotations:

  • No need for injury to be permanent.
2.1.1.3.2 Miller
2.1.1.3.2.1 'any hurt or injury calculated to interfere with the health or comfort of V provided it is more than transient and trivial.'
2.1.2 Mens Rea
2.1.2.1 Intention or recklessness as to an assault or battery

Annotations:

  • Direct Intention- Mohan Oblique Intention- Matthew & Alleyne Recklessness- Cunningham
2.1.2.1.1 Roberts
2.1.2.1.2 Savage
2.1.2.1.3 Parmenter
3 Section 20 of OAPA 1861
3.1 Grievous Bodily Harm (GBH)
3.1.1 Actus Reus
3.1.1.1 1) Unlawful- no consent to act by V
3.1.1.2 2) Wounding- has to be a break in the surface of the skin, both layers, usually with blood loss
3.1.1.2.1 Eisenhower
3.1.1.3 3) Grievous- really serious harm.
3.1.1.4 OR
3.1.1.4.1 Examples
3.1.1.4.1.1 Combination of injuries; broken nose, three lost teeth and concussion
3.1.1.4.1.2 Broken bones
3.1.1.4.1.3 Severe psychiatric illness
3.1.1.4.1.3.1 Permanent disability
3.1.2 Mens Rea
3.1.2.1 Malicious in definition- recklessly or intentionally
3.1.2.1.1 Recklessly= Some Harm

Annotations:

  • Cunningham
3.1.2.1.1.1 Intention= Direct or Indirect as to causing Some Harm to V.

Annotations:

  • Indirect= Not necessary that D foresaw GBH would be caused, only SOME HARM.
3.1.2.1.1.1.1 Parmenter
3.1.2.1.1.1.2 Mowatt
4 Section 18 of OAPA 1861
4.1 Grievous Bodily Harm with Intent
4.1.1 Actus Reus
4.1.1.1 Refer to Section 20
4.1.2 Mens Rea
4.1.2.1 Specific Intent ONLY
4.1.2.1.1 Direct and Indirect Intention

Annotations:

  • Direct- Mohan Indirect- did D foresee that really serious harm was a virtually certain consequence of his act? See Mathhew & Alleyne
4.1.2.1.2 Examples
4.1.2.1.2.1 As per Section 20, however unlikely to include psychiatric illnesses- difficult to prove D intended this.
4.1.2.2 Resisting Arrest

Annotations:

  • D must intent to resist or prevent an arrest but need not have intended serious harm.
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