1 ALLOTRANSPLANTATION: refers to
transplantation between animals of
the same species.
2 AMPLIFIED: Make
multiple copies of
(a gene or DNA
3 ASEPSIS: the
4 ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE: refers to any
equipment or materials taken at any
point in a biotechnological process to
ensure that unwanted microorganisms do
not contaminate the culture that is being
grown or the products that are extracted
5 BIOTECHNOLOGY: is technology based on biology and
involves the exploitation of living organisms or
biological processes, to improve agriculture, animal
husbandry, food science, medicine and industry.
6 CALLUS: a mass of
7 cDNA: complementary DNA:
single-stranded DNA that is
complementary to messenger RNA or
DNA that has been synthesized from
messenger RNA by reverse
8 CLONE: an exact copy. Genes, cells or
whole organisms that carry identical
genetic material because they are derived
from the same original DNA
9 CODING DNA: (exon)
sequence of a gene's DNA
that transcribes into
10 CONJUGATION: Bacterial cells can join
together and pass plasmid DNA from one
bacterial cell to another. This process can take
place between bacteria of different species and
is of concern in terms of passing
plasmid-located genes for antibiotic resistance.
11 GENE THERAPY: The
transplantation of normal genes
into cells in place of missing or
defective ones in order to correct
12 CULTURE: a growth of microorganisms. This may be
a single species (which would be called a pure
culture) or a mixture of species (called a mixed
culture). Microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid
such as nutrient broth, or on a solid surface such as
nutrient agar gel.
13 DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING: The extraction of
enzyme from a fermentation mixture. Describes
the processes involved in the separation and
purification of any product or large-scale
14 EXPLANT: living tissue
transferred from an
organism to an artificial
medium for culture.
15 GENE THERAPY: The transplantation of normal
genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones
in order to correct genetic disorders.
16 IMMOBILISATION: of enzymes refers to any
technique where enzyme molecules are held,
separated from the reaction mixture. Substrate
molecules can bind to the enzyme molecules and
the products formed go back into the reaction
mixture leaving the enzyme molecules in place.
17 REPRODUCTIVE CLONING: The cloning of an
embryo for transplantation into a uterus with
the intention of producing offspring
genetically identical to the donor.
18 ROOTSTOCK: A propagation
term for a vigorous rooting plant
upon which another is grafted.
19 SOMATIC CELL GENE THERAPY: Involves the placing of the
gene in adult differentiated ells. Examples include the
placing of CFTR genes into the respiratory system cells of
individuals with cystic fibrosis.
20 THERAPEUTIC CLONING: The goal of therapeutic
cloning is to create cells that exactly match a patient.
By combining a patient's somatic cell nucleus and an
enucleated egg, a scientist may harvest embryonic
stem cells from the resulting nuclear transfer product
that can be used to generate tissues that match a
21 TOTIPOTENT STEM CELLS: Stem cells that can differentiate
into any type of specialised cells found in organisms of that
22 VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION: refers to the production of
structures in an organism that can grow into new
individual organisms. These offspring contain the same
genetic information as the parent plant and so are
clones of the parent.