Definitions F215

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Mind Map by _tm, updated more than 1 year ago
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Mind Map on Definitions F215, created by _tm on 02/01/2015.

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Definitions F215
1 ALLOTRANSPLANTATION: refers to transplantation between animals of the same species.
2 AMPLIFIED: Make multiple copies of (a gene or DNA sequence
3 ASEPSIS: the lack of contamination by unwanted microorganisms
4 ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE: refers to any measure/techniques/manipulations of equipment or materials taken at any point in a biotechnological process to ensure that unwanted microorganisms do not contaminate the culture that is being grown or the products that are extracted
5 BIOTECHNOLOGY: is technology based on biology and involves the exploitation of living organisms or biological processes, to improve agriculture, animal husbandry, food science, medicine and industry.
6 CALLUS: a mass of undifferentiated cells.
7 cDNA: complementary DNA: single-stranded DNA that is complementary to messenger RNA or DNA that has been synthesized from messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase
8 CLONE: an exact copy. Genes, cells or whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they are derived from the same original DNA
9 CODING DNA: (exon) sequence of a gene's DNA that transcribes into protein structures
10 CONJUGATION: Bacterial cells can join together and pass plasmid DNA from one bacterial cell to another. This process can take place between bacteria of different species and is of concern in terms of passing plasmid-located genes for antibiotic resistance.
11 GENE THERAPY: The transplantation of normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders.
12 CULTURE: a growth of microorganisms. This may be a single species (which would be called a pure culture) or a mixture of species (called a mixed culture). Microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth, or on a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel.
13 DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING: The extraction of enzyme from a fermentation mixture. Describes the processes involved in the separation and purification of any product or large-scale fermentations
14 EXPLANT: living tissue transferred from an organism to an artificial medium for culture.
15 GENE THERAPY: The transplantation of normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders.
16 IMMOBILISATION: of enzymes refers to any technique where enzyme molecules are held, separated from the reaction mixture. Substrate molecules can bind to the enzyme molecules and the products formed go back into the reaction mixture leaving the enzyme molecules in place.
17 REPRODUCTIVE CLONING: The cloning of an embryo for transplantation into a uterus with the intention of producing offspring genetically identical to the donor.
18 ROOTSTOCK: A propagation term for a vigorous rooting plant upon which another is grafted.
19 SOMATIC CELL GENE THERAPY: Involves the placing of the gene in adult differentiated ells. Examples include the placing of CFTR genes into the respiratory system cells of individuals with cystic fibrosis.
20 THERAPEUTIC CLONING: The goal of therapeutic cloning is to create cells that exactly match a patient. By combining a patient's somatic cell nucleus and an enucleated egg, a scientist may harvest embryonic stem cells from the resulting nuclear transfer product that can be used to generate tissues that match a patient.
21 TOTIPOTENT STEM CELLS: Stem cells that can differentiate into any type of specialised cells found in organisms of that species.
22 VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION: refers to the production of structures in an organism that can grow into new individual organisms. These offspring contain the same genetic information as the parent plant and so are clones of the parent.
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