1 Backups-copies of the original data to
restore it incase the originals are lost or
damaged.They should be done reguarly
and placed away from the off-site (away
from the originals location)
1.1 E.g. used by banks who have
many transactions during the
day or hospital swho have
important records about patients
1.2 Storage media for making backups
1.2.1 Removable Hard Disk- 500GB
(portable and internal)
22.214.171.124 Pros- portable, cheap, durable, large storage capacity,
non volatile, supports how your computer works
126.96.36.199.1 Cons: moving parts so it can break, slow, regular crashes can
188.8.131.52 Magnetic tape backup- 20GB
184.108.40.206.1 Pros- portable, can store large amounts of data, can
be set up to do the backing up overnight
220.127.116.11.1.1 Cons: you need special equipment to use it, slow, has a
limited life span, can be expensive
18.104.22.168.2 CDs (CD-R & CD-RW)- 660 MB
22.214.171.124.2.1 Pros: small and fast, portable, cheap, most computers
can read the CDs, easy to use
126.96.36.199.2.1.1 Cons: can scratch easily, fragile, takes more time to load than
188.8.131.52.2.2 DVDs- ( DVD-R & DVD-RW)- 4.7MB
184.108.40.206.2.2.1 Pros- large storage capacity, good sound quality,
good picture quality, portable
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Cons: can scratch easily, they do not work in CD's, there is no
single standard DVD
22.214.171.124.2.2.2 Flash Memory Stick- 8GB
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Pros: portable, rewritable, can be used in most
computers, cheap, easy to use, durable because it
has no moving parts
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 Cons: small so can be lost easily, it has a limited life span
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Network Storage- more or one
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 Pros: files can be easily shared between users, the
data is easy to backup as all data is stored on the
file server, security is good
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.1 Cons: purchasing it can be expensive, managing a large network
is complicated, viruses could spread throughout the network,
there is a danger of hacking occurring in the network to, security
procedures like firewall should be use.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2 Online Storage- 5 to 50MB
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2.1 Pros: online so you don't have to worry about
loosing a physical item, easy to use, most cases is
secure, cheap to use
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2.1.1 Cons: hackers could invade your account you have to have an
internet connection to use it, viruses could occur on the web
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2.2 Floppy disk- 1.44MB
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2.2.1 Pros: cheap, re-usable
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Cons: small storage space, slow data transfer, not everyone has
floppy disk readers now,easily lost.
1.3 The options for backup and
archiving are dependent upon the
1.3.1 Content and type
22.214.171.124 What data needs to be backed up?
126.96.36.199 How often should the backup take place ?
188.8.131.52 The best time to back up.
1.3.4 Backup Media
184.108.40.206 What the data will be backed up onto
220.127.116.11 Where will the data be stored?
2 Archive- the storage/moving of files
that are no longer in current use but
are kept for future reference. It is
done to free up space and speed up
access time on the hard drive.
2.1 Legal documents are archived
e.g. when a pupil leaves school
their work may not be in use but
it has to be legally archived for a
certain amount of years.
3 Virus- A program designed to
cause damage to a computer
system. It is a computer program
that replicates and spreads itself
and is mainly from attachments or
3.1 Worm virus- a program that makes copies of
itself to cause damage to the computer.
3.1.1 Trojan horse- describes itself as another useful
program so it can get past the security system in order
to cause damage to the computer system.
4 Malware-software that has been created with
an ill intent, such as viruses keylogging or
5 Hacking-the practice of breaking into a secure
computer system to cause damage.They invade
privacy and can damage data.
6 Unathourised user- someone who has
not been given permission to access
7 Causes of data loss
7.1.1 Theft of computer
18.104.22.168 Scratches on hard
7.2.1 Data theft
22.214.171.124.1.1 Data damage
7.4 Power loss
7.5 Corrupt files/program
8 Security methods
8.1 Physical security- using physical methods of
security like CCTV,guards,locks,and biometrics to
keep out unauthorised access
8.1.1 CCTV- Closed Circuit Television- video surveillance using
cameras, microphones and other recording devices to
monitor people and places. The device(s) capture
footage and send it back to the CCTV system. Mainly
used for security purposes e.g. in banks, retail
areas,government institutions and highways/streets.
126.96.36.199 Locks- used to keep places/unopenable without a key.
Mainly used for safes,doors,windows and cabinets.
Helps prevent unauthorised access to many places so
these intruders do not e.g. steal any computers
containing important data on them.
188.8.131.52.1 Guards- physical people used to watch over or control
areas to protect people or places. They can log visits of
potential intruders and mainly found outside
businesses where data is kept, on high streets or areas
with high valued goods.
184.108.40.206.1.1 Biometrics- reader or scanner device used for security
e.g. fingerprint scanners or eye scanners to identify a
person. It converts scanned information into digital
form and compares it to match data already stored in a
database for this comparison.
8.2 Software methods- used to prevent
unauthorised access to computer systems
and online accounts.
8.2.1 Encryption- When data is scrambled to make
it unreadable when transmitted from one
device to another , only the receiver has the
220.127.116.11 It is a useful way to help protect private data from
hackers or other people who are trying to intercept
into the internet or e.g. email. It can be used by
companies or normal people who are sending
private information to places such as banks.
8.2.2 User name- to identify the user and allocate
the correct access rights and documents for
18.104.22.168 Password- used to verify the username and
used for security purposes. A strong password
should be used that contains non-dictionary
words, numbers and upper and lower case
22.214.171.124.1 Selective drop-down menus are sometimes
used as a security method to add letters to a
password rather than typing them. This
prevents key-logging software from viewing
the systems and gaining access to important
126.96.36.199.1.1 Transition logs- MONITORING METHOD NOT
PREVENTION, used to track the actions of a
computer user, keep records of a user,the
action and the date and time so if a record or
file is accessed it will provide evidence of who
has accessed it and what has been done with it.
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 Firewall- prevent unathourised requests from
hackers to gain access to the network or
computer systems via the internet.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Anti-virus software- designed to detect and
destroy computer viruses which could damage
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 IDS- Intrusion detection system, detects an
attack on a network or computer system.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1 Anti-spyware software- a program designed to
detect unwanted spyware program installations
and to remove those programs if installed e.g. put
in a quarantine.