The War Of 1812

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The War Of 1812
1 Battles
1.1 Treaty of Ghent
1.1.1 In Dec of 1814, representatives from Britain and America travelled to Ghent, Belgium to see if they could reach a peace agreement.
1.1.1.1 The War of 1812 ended with the signing, neither side really won, the border between the U.S. and BNA stayed the same.
1.2 Conditions
1.3 Battle of Lundy's Lanes
1.3.1 A force of 1500 soldiers under General Scott attacked a British force
1.3.1.1 of about 1700, both sides lost over 800 men, but America retreated.
1.3.1.1.1 This battle had the most deaths in any battle on Canadian soil
1.4 Battle of Crysler's Farm
1.4.1 1300 American soldiers went down the St. Lawrence River
1.4.1.1 Waiting was a force of British soldiers, militia, and First Nations.
1.4.1.1.1 They defended firm, and the Americans retreated.
1.5 Battle of Stoney Creek
1.5.1 British forces were in Upper Canada near Stoney Creek.
1.5.1.1 British regiments made a night attack trying to surprise the larger American force.
1.5.1.1.1 Because it was dark, they missed the main camp, in the confusion, many soldiers died, and
1.5.1.1.1.1 the British retreated.
1.6 Battle of Detroit
1.6.1 Offer Brock and Tecumseh attacked Fort Detroit.
1.6.1.1 They were very outnumbered, so they used a strategy to
1.6.1.1.1 make them think they had thousands of soldiers,
1.6.1.1.1.1 The fort was surrendered, securing the western border and supplying
1.6.1.1.1.1.1 them with ammunition and muskets.
1.7 Battle of Queenston Heights
1.7.1 The Americans captured the Heights, Brock and a small troop rushed in to defend.
1.7.1.1 Brock was shot and killed, they all gathered and pushed the Americans back,
1.7.1.1.1 but Brock's death was a huge loss.
1.8 Battle of Washington and Baltimore
1.8.1 American forces destroyed towns in Upper Canada.
1.8.1.1 The British then attack the American capital in Washington. They moved on to Baltimore after
1.8.1.1.1 destroying the White house, and other government buildings.
1.8.1.1.1.1 British ships shlled Fort Mchenry from the Baltimore Harbour.
1.9 Battle of Beaver Dams
1.9.1 Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Boerstler and his troop got ambushed at
1.9.1.1 Beaver Dams. They were forced to surrender to Chief Fitzgibbon.
2 Causes
2.1 Long Term
2.1.1 French ruler, Napoleon Bonaparte was trying to challenge
2.1.1.1 Britain's position as the leading military power in the world.
2.1.1.1.1 France was defeated in the Seven Years War, but got it's revenge
2.1.1.1.1.1 in the American Revolution when they helped American colonists
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 gain independence from Britain
2.1.1.1.1.1.2 But Napoleon wanted to make France number one again.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 They did this by disrupting trade with blockades and forced
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 inspections of ships.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 These trade wars was called the Napoleonic Wars,
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 and with the United States having lots of merchant
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 ships trading with Europe, it had a negative impact on them
2.2 Immediate
2.2.1
2.2.2 British Interference with American Ships
2.2.2.1 Britain knew that many Americans supported the French
2.2.2.1.1 during the Napoleonic Wars.
2.2.2.1.1.1 British Warships stopped American merchant ships to inspect them.
2.2.2.1.1.1.1 If they ever found British seamen on board, they would be forced to work on British warships.
2.2.2.1.1.1.1.1 This was called impressment, was legal if the sailors were British settlers.
2.2.3 American Expansion into the Northwest
2.2.3.1 The Treaty of Paris in 1783 had give the Ohio Valley to the U.S., but it also required
2.2.3.1.1 them to respect treaties already signed with the First Nations.
2.2.3.1.1.1 The First Nations consulted the British after they discovered Americans were ignoring the treaties,
2.2.3.1.1.1.1 something, the Americans would become bolder and advance into Upper Canada
2.2.3.1.1.1.2 and the British feared that if they didn't do
2.2.4 Fur Trade Officials in the First Nations Territories
2.2.4.1 The United States said that British fur trade officials were
2.2.4.1.1 encouraging First Nations Claims..
2.2.4.1.1.1 The First Nations made a false report about the American settlers.
2.2.4.1.1.1.1 The Americans also said the British were supplying the First Nations with
2.2.4.1.1.1.1.1 arms to attack the settlers.
2.2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1 If this didn't stop, the U.S. government was going to have to stop
2.2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 a war between the First Nations and the settlers.
3 Effects
3.1 1.Agriculture declined because many famers were called away to fight in the milita.
3.1.1 In addition, armies damaged many fields through their manoeuvres and fighting.
3.1.1.1 2.There was a series of smaller harvests, and the food supply was threatened.
3.1.1.1.1 3.There was an increase in the demand for materials to support the troops.
3.1.1.1.1.1 The import business prospered as goods came into Canada from Britain,
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Some merchants in the import business made a lot of money out the war.
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 4.Prominent people, such as politicians and religious leaders, urged the people to do
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 everything they could to resist the enemy.
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Lower and Upper Canadians heeded this call, and volunteers for the militia stepped forward rapidly
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The Canadiens especially saw the Americans as a threat. They regarded the Americans as anti-French,
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 and felt reasonably well treated under British rule.
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 As in the American Revolution, the Canadiens supported the British during the War of 1812.
4 Key Figures
4.1 Sir Isaac Brock (1769-1812)
4.1.1 Background:
4.1.1.1 Brock was born in 1769, he was an eight son, and at the
4.1.1.1.1 age of 15, he joined the army. He served in the West Indies and in Europe,
4.1.1.1.1.1 where Britain and France were at war to be the most powerful nation.
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 Achievements:
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 In 1810, he was in command of the Montreal defenses, but later that year. he was sent to Upper Canada
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 to take charge of the whole colonys defence. He realized with the help of the First Nations, it would be a lot easier to defend.
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 He and Tecumseh attacked Fort Detroit and Michilimackinac, but then Brock was shot and killed whilst attempting to recapture the Heights.
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Significance:
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 His military actions in the War of 1812, particularly his success at Detroit,
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 earned him a knighthood, membership in the Order of Bath, accolades and the
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 sobriquet “Hero of Upper Canada.”
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The last pronouncement of the brilliant military strategist is said to have been
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 “Surgite!” — Latin for “Push on!” — which is Brock University’s motto.
4.2 Tecumseh (1768-1813)
4.2.1 Background:
4.2.1.1 Tecumseh was a chief of the Shawnee people, in the American Revolution,
4.2.1.1.1 American soldiers destroyed many shawnee villages.
4.2.1.1.1.1 Achievements:
4.2.1.1.1.1.1 Tecumseh allied with the British due to his anger at the Americans
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 When they attacked Detroit, he used a strategy to make the Americans think that he had far more soldiers.
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The Shawnee were forced to move to new land farther west because the Americans won the battle of Lake Erie.
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The British and First Nations were badly beaten and Tecumseh was killed, Shawnee warriors lost heart due to his loss.
4.3 Laura Secord (1775-1868)
4.3.1 Background:
4.3.1.1 Secord was born in 1775, she married James Secord
4.3.1.1.1 in 1797.
4.3.1.1.1.1 Achievements:
4.3.1.1.1.1.1 Secord overheard that the Americans were planning a sudden
4.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 attack on the British outpost at Beaver Dams and capture the officer in charge,
4.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Lieutenant James FitzGibbon. Her husband, given his injuries, was unable to deliver this message to the British so she set out to do it herself.
4.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The direct route to the outpost was 12 miles (about 20 kilometers), and Laura was worried that she would encounter American guards on her way there. She decided it would be better to travel through fields and forests; it wasn’t easy and when she finally arrived, she was exhausted.
4.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 After she crossed the Twelve Mile Creek on a fallen tree, Laura was surprised to come upon a First Nations’ encampment. Once her mission was explained, the chief took her directly to FitzGibbon. Two days later, American troops were ambushed near Beaver Dams by First Nations warriors. FitzGibbon then persuaded the much larger American forces to surrender.
4.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Significance:
4.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Although Laura Secord received 100 pounds from England’s Prince of Wales in 1860, many years would elapse before her brave feat was recognized as an act of heroism. After her death, two monuments were erected in her memory: one was built by the Government of Canada in Queenston; and the other by the Ontario Historical Society at Lundy’s Lane.
4.4 Lieutenant-Colonel John By (1779-1836)
4.4.1 Background:
4.4.1.1 By was posted to the Royal Engineers, the regiment in charge of building military facilities.
4.4.1.1.1 In 1802, he was posted to Lower Canada and stationed in Quebec City.
4.4.1.1.1.1 Significance:
4.4.1.1.1.1.1 By was on the of the many people who worked hard to develop BNA at this time.
4.4.1.1.1.1.1.1 Before he returned to England, the Montreal Commitee of Trade made a presentation and address to him.
4.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 It made special mention of his "moral courage and an undaunted spirit" which excites our admiration and deserves our praise.
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