3. Describe the state of nature for Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau.


Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau on the Natural state and how that affected the terms of social contract theories.
Elisabeth Morell
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Elisabeth Morell
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3. Describe the state of nature for Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau.
  1. Hobbes
    1. We are in constant warfare with one another. Every man against every man.
      1. Authority will protect and preserve mens lives and properties
      2. There can be no economy because men pursue their own self interest
        1. Sovereign law limits humans to join together as a common enemy
        2. Humans are rational and pursue own desires efficiently
          1. willing to submit to authority to preserve their lives
        3. Locke
          1. State of "peace, goodwill, mutual assistance, and preservation." All men have equal rights and are free by nature
            1. Property is not secure
              1. Private property is created by mixing personal labour with raw materials of nature
                1. You cannot take more property than your own fair share
                  1. Nature belongs to all mankind
                  2. This creates a need for government. Protection of property and bodies
                2. governed by natural laws
                  1. In the state of nature there is absence of power to maintain natural laws
                    1. Unlimited sovereignty is contrary to natural law
                      1. Government is only sovereign when fulfilling its purpose to protect and uphold the natural laws
                  2. State of nature=state of liberty
                    1. To maintain liberty with a government, man does not surrender all rights to a single power, but gives over the power of justice to a government
                      1. Government is formed through consent
                  3. Rousseau
                    1. Happy and equal
                      1. Lost in modern civilization
                        1. The General Will upholds happiness and equality
                          1. The state and Law are a byproduct of the General Will
                      2. Freedom is obeying yourself
                        1. The General Will
                          1. Will of the majority of citizens.
                            1. Obeying the general will implies that you are obeying yourself
                              1. If you obey yourself, you are free
                          2. Private property=greed and competition
                            1. Represents "Fall from Grace" out of the state of nature. Happiness and equality were lost
                              1. Surrender rights and consent to the "General Will"
                                1. Part with natural rights to gain civil liberites
                            2. "Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains."
                            3. State of Nature = no government and no law
                              1. Evaluate how their ideas affect the terms of the social contract theory that emerge from it.
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