Organic Chemistry

kayanakat
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

Chemistry Mind Map on Organic Chemistry, created by kayanakat on 09/09/2013.

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kayanakat
Created by kayanakat about 6 years ago
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1 Isomers
1.1 Structural isomers have the same molecular formula but different structural formula
1.2 Geometric isomers occur in some alkenes (C=C bonds cannot rotate)
1.3 Optical isomers occur in compounds that have a chiral carbon.
1.3.1 Rotate polarised light in opposite directions
2 Important reaction types
2.1 Addition: A double bond is broken and atoms are added into the molecule
2.2 Elimination: Atoms are removed from a molecule and a double bond forms
2.3 Oxidation: A molecule gains an O atom or loses an H atom.
2.4 Substitution: Atoms in a molecule are exchanged for other atoms.
3 Haloalkanes
3.1 Suffix -ane
3.2 BPs are higher than corresponding alkanes but lower than corresponding alcohols
3.3 Insoluble in water (even though slightly polar)
3.4 Preparation and reactions of chloroalkanes
3.4.1 Alkene + HCl = Chloroalkance
3.4.2 Alcohol + PCl5 or PCl3 or SOCl2 = Chloroalkane
3.4.3 Chloroalkance + NaOH(aq) or KOH(aq) = Alcohol
3.4.4 Chloroalkane + NH3(alc) = Amine
3.4.5 Chloroalkane + NaOH(alc) or KOH(alc) = Alkene
4 Alcohols
4.1 Suffix -ol
4.2 BPs higher than corresponding alkanes. BPS increase as length of C chain (molar mass) increases.
4.3 Short chain alcohols are soluble. Solubility decreases as size of C chain increases.
4.4 Preparation and reactions of Alcohols
4.4.1 Chloroalkane + NaOH(aq) or KOH (aq) = Alcohol
4.4.2 Alkene + H2SO4(aq) = Alcohol
4.4.3 Ester + Carboxylic acid and conc. H2SO4 = Alcohol

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