Acids & Alkalis

Tom Johnson
Mind Map by Tom Johnson, updated more than 1 year ago
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A mind map about acids, alkalis and bases, the pH scale and universal indicator. Includes equations for neutralisation.
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Acids & Alkalis
1 The pH Scale
1.1 Used to measure how acidic or alkaline a solution is
1.2 The strongest acid has a pH of 0
1.3 The strongest alkali has a pH of 14
1.4 A neutral substance (eg. water) has a pH of 7
2 Indicator Dye
2.1 The dye in an indicator solution changes colour depending on whether it's above or below a certain pH.
2.2 Universal Indicator is a combination of dyes that produce the colours in the diagram to the right depending on the pH of a solution
2.2.1 It's very useful for estimating the pH of a solution
3 Acids & Bases
3.1 Acids & Bases neutralise each other
3.2 An ACID is a substance with a pH of LESS than 7
3.2.1 Acids for H+ ions in water
3.3 A BASE is a substance with a pH GREATER than 7
3.3.1 An ALKALI is a base that DISSOLVES in water
3.3.1.1 Alkalis form OH- ions in water
3.4 H+ ions make solutions acidic
3.4.1 OH- ions make solutions alkaline
4 The reaction between acids and bases is called neutralisation
4.1 acid + base -> salt + water
4.2 H+ + OH- -> H2O
4.2.1 H2O (Water) has a neutral pH so this shows that an acid and bases neutralise each other
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