Chemistry Revision: Chapter 1 - 4

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Chemistry Revision For IGCSE Core - Chapter 1 - 4
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Chemistry Revision: Chapter 1 - 4
1 Chapter 1 : Particles And Purification

Attachments:

1.1 Solids, Liquid and Gases
1.1.1 The 3 States Of Matter
1.1.2 Every Thing Is Made Out Of - Particles
1.1.2.1 Atom - Smallest Particle - Cannot be Broken Down
1.1.2.2 Molecules - A Particle Of Two or More Atoms Joined
1.1.2.3 Ion - An Atom Or Group Of Atoms That Carries An Electrical Charge
1.1.3 Properties Of Solid, Liquid and Gas

Annotations:

  • Solid - Fixed Pattern              Vibrates               Really Close Together Liquid - No Fixed Pattern                Slides Past Each Other                Close Together Gas  -   No Arrangement                Move Everywhere             Rapidly               Far Apart from each other
1.1.4 Changing States

Annotations:

  • When we heat a solid, its particle GAIN ENERGY, which causes them to vibrate more. The FORCE OF ATTRACTION between the particles are weakened and the solid therefor melts. Heating it again in a higher temp. causes the force of attraction to weaken even more, causing the liquid to boil(turn into gas)
1.2 Apparatus For Measuring
1.2.1 Beaker - A simple Container for stirring, mixing and heating a liquid
1.2.2 Conical Flask - Uses to hold chemical in it (same use for a beaker)
1.2.3 Measuring Cylinder - Used to measure the Volume of Liquid accurately
1.2.4 Pipette - transport a measured volume of liquid,
1.2.5 Burette - is used to accurately deliver up to 50cm3 of liquid
1.3 Method Of Purification
1.3.1 Separating Solid From a Solution
1.3.1.1 FILTRATION

Annotations:

  • EG. Water and Sand Water can past through the filter paper but sand cant because its particle is to big to past though. So water is left by its own separated from the sand
1.3.1.2 CRYSTALLISATION

Annotations:

  •  Is used to obtain crysalline solid from a solution. The solvent (a substance that dissovles in a solute) is gently heated to concentrate it, The solvent(usuallt water)  is evaporated. 
1.3.1.3 CENTRIFUGE

Annotations:

  • Is a machine which spins to separate liquid from solid 
1.3.1.4 Decanting

Annotations:

  • Is simply pouring off the solution.
1.3.2 Obtain A Solvent From A Solution
1.3.2.1 SIMPLE DISTILLATION

Annotations:

  • Eg. A solution of salt and water. The solution is heated up. Water which has a lower boiling point then salt has will turn into gas and travel down the condenser where it turns back into liquid, dropping into a beaker. A solution of salt is left behind and a beaker of fresh water.
1.3.2.2 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION

Annotations:

  • Used to separate a mixture of liquids with different boiling points. 
1.3.2.3 EVAPORATION
1.4 Diffusion
1.4.1 The Random Movement Of Particles In A Solution Or In Gases Leading To Complete Mixing Of Partilce
2 Chapter 2 : Atoms, Elements And Compounds
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