1.1 11th November 1918-Germany agrees
to sign armistice to end World War 1
1.1.1 Gave rise to the "stab in the back
theory"-the idea that Germany had been
betrayed by its politicians and that they
could have fought on
18.104.22.168 Nationalists called Ebert's
government the November
22.214.171.124 This was because
the Kaiser never
told bad news to
the German people
1.1.2 Treaty of Versailles
126.96.36.199 German people told that the
Treaty would be fair and based
on Wilson's 14 points
188.8.131.52.1 However Germany was not
allowed to participate in the
184.108.40.206.1.1 This was known as DIKTAT
220.127.116.11 Impact of the Treaty
18.104.22.168.1 1.The German Army was reduced to 100,000 men.
No tanks, airforces or submarines.this left
Germany totally defenceless against other
22.214.171.124.1.1 They did not see other countries disarming
126.96.36.199.2 Alsace-Lorainne was returned to
France, all German colonies were
taken away, Poland was given
German territory and the Rhineland
188.8.131.52.3 Germany lost 10% of its land and 12.5% of its population.
184.108.40.206.3.1 Millions of Germans were now ruled by foreigners.
220.127.116.11.3.2 East Prussia was cut off from
the rest of Germany by the
18.104.22.168.4 Germany had to pay REPARATIONS of
£6.6 billion to compensate the allies for
22.214.171.124.5 Germans were very bitter about the treaty,
only Germany was disarmed. Germans
were denied national self-determination,
they felt shamed by the war guilt clause.
126.96.36.199 Germany was now a Democratic Republic
188.8.131.52.1 The rules for it was set out in a COSTITUTION
184.108.40.206.1.2.1 The new constitution had several weaknesses
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 It used a system of PROPORTIONAL
REPRESENTATION which meant that no party won
more than half the votes between 1919 and 1933
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1 This often lead to COALITIONS
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1 All governments were
coalitions and when faced
with serious problems the
coalitions often fell out.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Also many people such as the aristocratic
families (Junkers), industrialists and
members of the army did not like
democracy. They wanted Germany to have one
strong leader like before the war.
22.214.171.124.2 Freidrich Ebert is
126.96.36.199.2.1 January 1919-Sparticist Uprising
188.8.131.52.2.1.1 In January 1919 communists in Berlin
calling themselves Spartacists tried to
overthrow the government. KARL
LIEBKNECHT and ROSA
LUXEMBURG led them.
184.108.40.206.2.1.2 They took over the
main streets and
public buildings in
Berlin. Ebert was
taken prisoner but
was released when
he promised to meet
220.127.116.11.2.1.3 Ebert called on the army
to put down the rebellion
but they refused. Many
officers were OPPOSED
to the new government.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Ebert was forced to
ask the leaders of the
help. These were
bands of ex-soldiers
who held on to their
continued to follow
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 The well-armed
Freikorps units killed
executed their leaders.
The revolt was over
184.108.40.206.2.1.4 The Kapp Putsch-provoked when
Ebert tries to disband the Friekorps
due to the Treaty of Versailles
limiting the army to 100,00-led by
Dr Wolfgang Kapp
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 The Freikorps marched on Berlin in March
1920 and proclaimed Dr Wolfgang Kapp
Germany’s new leader. The army refused to
fire on the Freikorps, many of whom had
fought alongside them in the war. The
government fled Berlin.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1 Ebert appealed to the ordinary people of Berlin
for help. They went on a GENERAL STRIKE to
show their opposition to Kapp. Kapp gave up
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Invasion of the Ruhr
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1 the French and Belgium invaded the Ruhr to seize
raw materials such as coal because Germany had not
payed its reparations as stated in the Treaty of
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.1.1 The industrial workers responded with passive resistance.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.2.1 The German government
was unable to raise enough
money to pay its bills and
decided to print more. This
got out of hand and resulted
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.2.1.1 German money was worthless
which ruined the lives of many
people in Germany
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 German industry came to a halt
and unemployment soared.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1 People lost their life savings and
were forced to sell their valuables
to buy food. Workers had to take
suitcases to work to collect their
wages twice a day.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1 Middle class people on monthly salaries
suffered because pay could not keep up
with price rises and any investments
they had became worthless.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1.1 Old age pensioners, disabled
people and the unemployed who
were on fixed incomes faced
starvation because they did not
have enough to buy food.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 However not everyone lost out. People
who had borrowed money found
it easy to repay in worthless
marks. Some businessmen made
fortunes in this way.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2.2 November 8th-Munich/Beerhall Putsch
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2.2.1 Adolf Hitler made his first
bid for power when
Germany was at its weakest
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 He believed that the army and people would support him
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 Hitler and a group of armed Nazis took
members of the Bavarian government as
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1 The next day Hitler and his supporters marched on
Munich on their way to army barracks. Police and
troops stopped them. Eleven people were killed.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1.1 Hitler was put on trial and sentenced to 5 years but only served 9 months as the judges
sympathised with him
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Hitler then decided to use legal means to gain power. As soon as
he came out of prison he reorganised the Nazi party
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2.2.2 Stresemann becomes chancellor of Germany
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Stresemann and Ebert scrapped the worthless mark and
introduced new money called the RENTENMARK
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 Government spending was also cut(700,000 government workers lost their jobs).
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1 Hyperinflation finally came to an end when the Americans agreed to the DAWES PLAN in 1924.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1.1 The Dawes
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1.2 It was also decided
that Germany should
be given longer to pay
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 This gave Germany economic stability.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1 Germany’s recovery was totally dependent
on American loans. These loans were for a
short period only. The American banks could
demand their money back at a very short
notice if they wanted.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 1925-The Locarno Treaty
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1 This meant that Germany agreed to accept the borders between Germany,
France and Belgium which had been set out in the Treaty of Versailles.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1 It improved Germany’s relations with France, Britain and the USA.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1.1 However it left Poland and Czechoslovakia
feeling nervous as it did not say anything
about their borders
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2 1926-Germany is invited to join League of Nations
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.2.1 Showed that Germany
was accepted by the rest
of the world again.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2.1.1 Allowed Stresemann to
negotiate some of the terms
of the Treaty of Versailles
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.2.2.1 This stated that they would not use
war as part of their foreign policy.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2.2.2 The Young Plan
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 This reduced Germany’s reparations
payments and spread them out to
make them easier.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Art and culture in the Weimar Republic flourished
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 1929-The Great Depression
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1 Wall Street Crash in
America caused a
Germany rose from
under 2 million to over 6
million between 1930
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.1.1 As a result, many
Germans turned to
extreme political parties
such as the Communists
and the Nazis who
claimed they could solve
Both parties wanted to
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.2 March 1932-Presidential Elections
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.2.1 January 1933-Hitler becomes
Chancellor of Germany
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Many thought that he
would not be
chancellor for long
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 He had limited power
– he needed the
support of Hindenburg
who disliked him.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.4 In two months
we’ll have pushed
Hitler into a corner
so hard that he’ll be
squealing’ – Von
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.5 However Hitler had
some advantages such
as the fact that...
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.5.1 He was the
leader of the
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.5.2 The Conservatives needed
him more than he needed
them – the alternative
would be civil war
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.5.3 He now had access to
state resources –
Goebbels could now
use the state printing
press for propaganda.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 February 27th 1933-Reichstag Fire
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1 A Dutch communist, Marinus
Van der Lubbe confessed to
starting the fire
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1 Hitler used what had happened to
claim that the communists were
trying to seize power and had 4000
leading communists arrested.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.1.1 Hitler persuaded Hindenburg to
sign a "Decree for the Protection
of People and the state"
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 He used these emergency
powers to prevent his
opponents from holding
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2 23rd March 1933-Enabling Act passed
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.2.1 This would give Hitler the power to make
laws without the Reichstag for 4 years
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2.1.1 To make sure that he got the
majority he wanted, Hitler ordered
the stormtroopers to surround the
building to intimidate the voters
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.2.2 20th June 1933-Concordat
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2.2.1 Hitler makes an agreement
with the Pope who sees him
as someone who can destroy
communism. This agreement
allows Hitler to take over
political power in Germany
as long as he leaves the
Catholic Church alone.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.2.2.2 30th June 1934-Night of the Long Knives
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 The leaders of the SA wanted Hitler to merge the
SA with the German army. The force would be put
under the control of the SA leader, Ernst Rohm.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1 However the army did not want to be controlled by Rohm.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.1 So on the night of the 30th June 1934 Hitler ordered
his elite bodyguard the SS to arrest and execute the
leaders of the SA. Hitler had made up a file which
accused Rohm of plotting to overthrow him. Hitler
also took the opportunity to settle a few old scores
and had Von Schleicher his predecessor put to death.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.1.1 This eliminated all opposition to Hitler from his party.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Now he also had the loyalty
of the army who swore an
oath of allegiance not to
Germany but to HITLER
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 2nd August 1934-Death of Hindenburg
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 19th August 1934-Fuhrer
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1 Hitler decided that the country
no longer needed a president and
merged chancellor and president
into a new title Fuhrer.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1.1 Hitler was now total leader of Germany
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.2 September 1935-Nuremburg Laws
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.2.1 August 1936-Berlin Olympics
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 November 9th-10th-Kristallnacht
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 When a Nazi diplomat was shot dead in
Paris, Hitler ordered attacks Jewish
homes,synagogues and their property
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1 In the morning the Jews were
ordered to clear up the mess. The
also had to pay a fine of 1 million
marks for the eventual clear-up.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 chance for germany to
show off their skills and
prove their beliefs
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.2.2 Jews were forbidden to marry or have sexual relations
with Germans. They could not be German citizens or vote.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.2.2 Hitler stood for
president but lost to
Paul von Hindenburg
who had been a great
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2 There was less censorship
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2.1 But some Germans hated the new ideas in art and
saw them as decadent and unpatriotic. They
wanted art to celebrate the traditional values of
German society. They saw the new artistic styles,
popular music, jazz and clubs showed how
Germany was going into moral decline.