Classical vs Operant Conditioning

Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

undergraduate Learning & Cognition PSY 318 (Classical vs Operant Conditioning) Mind Map on Classical vs Operant Conditioning, created by kellyjeanbean on 14/09/2013.

Created by kellyjeanbean about 6 years ago
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Classical vs Operant Conditioning
1 Classical Conditioning is also known as Associational Learning
1.1 Classical conditioning uses stimuli that an organism does not control; in operant conditioning, behaviors are associated with a consequence.
1.1.1 First described by Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning takes place when one stimulus that is reliably paired with a second stimulus begins to elicit the same response as the second stimulus. Pavlov and Contiguity -Temporal association between 2 events that occur closely together in time. The more closely in time the 2 events occur, the more likely they are were to become associated; as time passes the association is less likey CONTIGUITY - Pairing the conditional stimulus (CS) and the unconditional stimulus (US) produces the learning S-R (STIMULUS-RESPONSE) The CS becomes "connected to the conditional response (CR) S-R LEARNING, a direct connection or association is established between the CS and the CR. S-S LEARNING, leads to a formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. As a result of this association, presentation of the CS activates a neural representation of the unconditioned stimulus US, which in turn leads to the CR.
1.1.2 The use of a neutral stimulus, originally paired with one that invokes a response, to generate a conditioned response
1.1.3 STIMULUS In psychology, any energy patterns (e.g. light or sound) which are registered by the senses
2 Operant Conditioning
2.1 Operant conditioning, first investigated by Thorndike and then by Skinner, concerns what happens when a behavior (the instrumental response or operant) is immediately followed by an unconditioned stimulus, as when lever-pressing is followed by food.
2.1.1 A technique of behavior modification, developed by B.F. Skinner, that utilizes positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment to alter behavior. Reinforcement Theory states that people are more likely to perform a specific behavior if it is followed by something pleasurable. Reinforcement: The process whereby a behavior with desirable consequences comes to be repeated. Positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior by providing a consequence an individual finds rewarding. For example, if your teacher gives you £5 each time you complete your homework (i.e. a reward) you are more likely to repeat this behavior in the future, thus strengthening the behavior of completing your homework. Punishment: A suffering by pain or loss imposed as retribution Punishers: responses from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated Operant conditioning can involve two types of punishment: positive punishment (or type I punishment), in which a response is punished by presenting an aversive stimulus into the organism's surroundings (e.g. a brief electric shock or loud noise); and negative punishment (or type II punishment), in which a valued stimulus is removed (e.g., the removal of a feeding dish or favorite toy)
3 Classical and operant conditioning are types of associative learning that are influenced by cognitive and biological processes.
3.1 conditioning the process of modifying a person's behavior

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