Week 2 - The Olmecs

Caitlin Mongon
Mind Map by Caitlin Mongon, updated 7 months ago
Caitlin Mongon
Created by Caitlin Mongon 7 months ago
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Olmec notes in picture form bruv

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Week 2 - The Olmecs
1 EVIDENCE FOR SOCIAL INEQUALITY
1.1 Egalitarian
1.1.1 Little differenciates one person from another
1.1.1.1 Villages similar across a region
1.1.1.1.1 Achievements, age, and sex constitute the basis for their identity, achieved status
1.2 Social Ranking
1.2.1 Settlement system with central village
1.2.1.1 Appearence of civic/ceremonial structures
1.2.1.1.1 Differences in access to goods/quantity
1.2.1.1.1.1 Ascribed status
1.3 Men's Houses - Aligns with suns passage on equinox with a bell shaped pit in the middle. Found remnants of wild tobacco.
1.4 Tecomates - Gourd-shaped vessels
1.5 Tlatilco Mask - life and death joined
2 THE OLMEC
2.1 "Olmec" - Aztec name for the people who occupied the Gulf Coast
2.1.1 Derived from their word for "Rubber"
2.2 The Kunze Axe
2.2.1 not sharp or utilitarian
2.3 The Olmec Heartland
2.3.1 San Lorenzo
2.3.1.1 La Venta
2.3.1.1.1 Tres Zapotes
2.3.1.1.1.1 Laguna de los Cerros
2.3.1.1.1.1.1 "Superman" Basalt
2.3.1.1.1.1.1.1
2.3.1.1.1.2 50 earthen mounds
2.3.1.1.1.2.1 Inscriptions found = MARK the BEGINNING OF WRITING in Mexico
2.3.1.1.1.2.1.1 Sustained occupation post-la venta
2.3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 Stela-C
2.3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Stela - Carving set vertically into ground
2.3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Numeric System - 1 bar = 5, 1 dot = 1
2.3.1.1.2 Island, 18 mi inland, middle of river
2.3.1.1.2.1 900-400BC
2.3.1.1.2.1.1 Offering #4
2.3.1.1.2.1.1.1 Tombs above ground
2.3.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Pyramid of Clay
2.3.1.2 1500 BC
2.3.1.2.1 Over 50 stone sculptures across plateau surface
2.3.1.2.1.1 Destroyed by invasion or other turmoil ca. 900 BC
2.3.1.2.1.2 10 giant heads
2.3.2 EARLIEST
2.3.2.1 LATEST
2.4 The Olmec Fronteir
2.4.1 Manati
2.4.1.1 Las Bocas
2.4.1.1.1 Tlatico
2.4.1.1.1.1 "Pretty Ladies"
2.4.1.1.1.2 Chalcatzingo
2.4.1.1.1.2.1 located in the highlands
2.4.1.1.1.2.1.1 Burials in crypts, jade ear spools, pendants, necklaces, and La Venta-style figurines
2.4.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 Farming on artifical terraces
2.4.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 deer and rabbit hunted, but dog was most common food
2.4.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 first occupied 1500 BC, height from 700-500 BC
2.4.1.1.1.2.2 Oxtotitlan
2.4.1.1.1.2.2.1 Guerrero, Mexico
2.4.1.1.1.2.2.1.1 MURAL - above the entrence to cave on the interior -man with bird features on altar/throne -OLMEC INFLUENCE- x-motif, fangs, alter, animal and human mix
2.4.1.1.1.2.2.1.1.1 PAINTING 1-D- Suggesting a (possibly sexual) connection between Jaguars and Humans
2.4.1.1.2 Baby Figurines and Ceramics made of Kaolin Clay
2.4.1.1.2.1 Olmec motifs and faces found on figurines
2.4.1.2 Wooden Sculptures dating from 12-1500BC
2.4.1.2.1 Rubber ball cache
2.4.1.2.1.1 Waterlogged site allowed wooden sculptures to preserve
2.5 DISTINCTIVE ART FEATURES
2.5.1 Olmec "Style" Facial Features
2.5.1.1 thick lips
2.5.1.1.1 snarl
2.5.1.1.1.1 almond shape eyes
2.5.1.1.1.1.1 angry expression
2.5.1.1.1.1.1.1 thick eyebrows
2.5.1.2 3-D Bodies
2.5.1.2.1 Giant Heads
2.5.1.2.1.1 Altars/Thrones
2.5.1.2.1.1.1 WereJaguar Celts
2.5.1.2.1.1.1.1 baby werejaguars
2.5.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 baby figurines
2.5.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Human Anatomy art
2.5.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Flaming eyebrows
2.6 Environment and Susistence Strategies
2.6.1 Unstable, marshy environment
2.6.2 Cultivation of an early form of maize, mano and metate fragments, 1500 BC
2.6.2.1 Possible cultivation of manioc
2.6.2.1.1 gardens next to houses
2.6.2.1.1.1 Swidden system (slash and burn agriculture)
3 NON-OLMEC
3.1 Monte Alban
3.1.1 Starts to be build during Pre-classic period
3.1.1.1 Replaced San Jose Mogote as Valley of Oaxaca's most powerful settlement
3.1.1.1.1 Constructed about 400m above Valley floor around 500 BC
3.1.1.1.1.1 Hilltop at juncture of three valleys
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 TEMPLE OF THE DANZANTES
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 MOUND L - 330 slabs of sculptures
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 MOUND J - stone-faced building in shape of arrowhead pointing south
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 "THE OBSERVATORY"
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Interpreted as records of the towns conquest
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Inverted heads represent defeated rulers
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