Intro to Archaeology

Caitlin Mongon
Mind Map by Caitlin Mongon, updated more than 1 year ago
Caitlin Mongon
Created by Caitlin Mongon about 1 year ago
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Principles of Archaeology - Intro Content

Resource summary

Intro to Archaeology
  1. GOALS OF MODERN ARCHAEOLOGY
    1. Cultural History
      1. Reconstructing Past Lifeways
        1. Documenting Cultural Change
          1. Explaining Cultural Change
            1. Stewardship
              1. What gives VALUE or MEANING to an archaeological site
                1. What gives VALUE or MEANING to an archaeoligical site
                  1. How BEST do you CONSERVE that MEANING or VALUE in the FUTURE? WHO GETS TO DECIDE?
              2. WHATS DRIVING THOSE CHANGES U DOCUMENTED BRUV
                1. MECHANISMS OF CULTURE CHANGE
                  1. INNOVATION
                    1. DIFFUSION
                      1. ACCULTERATION
                        1. Migration may lead to an exchange of traits with the host society
                        2. spread of religious beliefs or an artifact or spread of a culture trait through borrowing
                        3. Invention, which give s birth to...
                  2. DISPLAYING how a culture CHANGES using ARTIFACTS
                    1. SERIATION - method for plotting the popularity of an artifact over time
                      1. Uses battleship curve
                  3. FUNCTION OF SITES AND ARTIFACTS
                    1. When reconstructing a site, think about...
                      1. SPATIAL ASSOCIATION: proximity and context
                  4. "When was this site occupied? For how long?"
                    1. RELATIVE DATING
                      1. ABSOLUTE DATING
                        1. CHRONOMETRIC DATING
                          1. STATEMENTS OF PROBABLITY about date
                            1. Radiocarbon Dating
                              1. Potassium Argon Dating
                          2. PRECISE CALENDER REFERENCE POINT
                            1. Dendochronology - Tree ring dating
                              1. Historical Records
                                1. Ice cores
                                2. Skinny ring = dry year, wide ring = wet year
                            2. Putting events in a SEQUENCE without reference to PRECISE DATES
                              1. Stratigraphy - study of strata (rock layers) and their relationship to the geological time scale
                      2. COMPONENTS OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD
                        1. ARTIFACTS
                          1. FEATURES
                            1. ECOFACTS
                              1. SOIL PROPERTIES
                                1. HUMAN REMAINS
                                  1. Straight up.
                                  2. the chemical signatures can tell you alot about what was happening on that soil
                                    1. Phosphurous for livestock and dung
                                      1. PH - acidic, or nah? Ash changes PH to be more basic
                                        1. TEXTURE. How rocky?
                                  3. Plant and animal remains that are related to human activity
                                    1. Not a tool - more like a pile of bones from a kill site
                                      1. charred seeds tell us flora used for diet
                                        1. pollen preserves in waterlogged environments
                                          1. Phytoliths - microscopic silica particles left behind when plants decompose
                                  4. Pieces of archaeological record that cannot be moved w/o damage
                                    1. for example: an arrangement of stones, fashioned together as a foundation
                                      1. SPECIFIC EXAMPLE: Great Serpent Mound in Ohio - straight up just the ground
                                        1. Aquaducts, Huacas, Temples
                                  5. Any MOVEABLE OBJECT, easily transportable
                                    1. MADE or MODIFIED or USED by humans in some way
                                2. TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESSES
                                  1. Natural
                                    1. Catastrophic events
                                      1. Volcanoes, earthquakes, floods
                                        1. Events that occur over time
                                          1. Wind and water erosion, thawing and freezing
                                      2. Cultural
                                        1. Abandonment
                                          1. Burial
                                            1. War
                                              1. Burial
                                                1. Re-occuption
                                                  1. Modern tourism and construction
                                                    1. looting
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