Neurons, Synapses, & Signaling

laurachavarry
Mind Map by laurachavarry, updated more than 1 year ago
laurachavarry
Created by laurachavarry about 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Neurons, Synapses, & Signaling, created by laurachavarry on 02/24/2015.

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Neurons, Synapses, & Signaling
1 Amino acids and amines
1.1 neuropeptides
1.1.1 relatively short chains of amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters that operate via metabotropic receptors.
1.2 Glutamate
1.2.1 the neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction. Is also an amino acid.
1.3 dopamine
1.3.1 an amine made from tyrosine. It affects sleep mood, attention, and learning.
1.4 serotonin
1.4.1 an amine made from tryptophan. It affects sleep, mood, attention, and learning.
1.5 norepinephrine
1.5.1 an amino acid made from tyrosine. Also is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system.
2 Neuron Structure
2.1 axon
2.1.1 an extension that transmits signals to other cells. Axons are longer than dendrites.
2.2 synapse
2.2.1 the branched end of an axon that transmits information to another cell at a junction.
2.3 dendrites
2.3.1 numerous highly branched extensions attached to the cell body
2.4 neurotransmitters
2.4.1 chemical messengers that pass information from the transmitting neuron to the receiving cell.
3 Neuron Communication
3.1 ligand-gated ion channel
3.1.1 the receptor protein that binds and responds to neurotransmitters. Binding to a particular part of the receptor opens the channel & allows specific ions to diffuse across the membrane.
3.2 excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
3.2.1 when the ligand-gated ion channel opens (and its permeable to both sodium and potassium), the membrane potential depolarizes. This brings the membrane potential to a threshold.
3.3 temporal summation
3.3.1 when 2 EPSPs occur at a single synapse in rapid succession that the neuron's membrane potential has not returned to resting potential before the arrival of the second EPSP.
3.4 spatial summation
3.4.1 EPSPs produced nearly simultaneously by different synapses on the same postsynaptic neuron can cause this.
4 Ion pumps
4.1 membrane potential
4.1.1 the charge difference, or voltage of energy in a cell
4.2 ion channels
4.2.1 pores formed by clusters of specialized proteins that span the membrane
4.3 sodium-potassium pump
4.3.1 pump uses ATP hydrolysis to actively transport sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell
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