Carbohydrates

manu_maus
Mind Map by manu_maus, updated more than 1 year ago
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still a work in progress! All Dietary Reference Intakes in this mind map referenced from the US National Institute of Health http://ods.od.nih.gov/Health_Information/Dietary_Reference_Intakes.aspx

Resource summary

Carbohydrates
1 CHO amounts in food

Annotations:

  • Carbohydrates are found in a wide array of both healthy and unhealthy foods. Foods high in carbohydrates are an important part of a healthy diet. 
1.1 Dairy > milk & yogurt per 250g (but none in cheese) = 12 g CHO

Annotations:

  • no CHO in cheese because the milk sugar (lactose) has been removed during processing- that's why some people with lactose intolerance can actually tolerate cheese more readily than other dairy, yoghurt or ice cream. 1 cup (US cup measurement)
1.2 Fruit > medium-sized piece of fruit or 125g cut = 15 g CHO

Annotations:

  • 1⁄2 cup (US cup measurement)
1.3 Vegetables > typical non-starchy, medium-sized or 125g cooked = 5g CHO

Annotations:

  • 1⁄2 cup (US cup measurement)
1.4 Starchy foods > whole grain bread, pastas, rices, tortillas, cereals > 28g, 1 slice, 125g cooked starch = 15 g CHO (around 100 calories serving)

Annotations:

  • Choose a cereal that has at least 4 g of fiber and less than 8g of sugar per serving. 1⁄2 cup (US cup measurement)  
1.5 Legumes, dried peas & beans > per 125g = approx 15-20 g CHO

Annotations:

  • 1⁄2 cup (US cup measurement)
1.6 Sugars > there's lots of carbohydrate in sugars and added sugars, sucrose (table sugar) 1 tsp = 4 g CHO, 1 tbs = 12 g CHO
1.7 Meat, oil & fat > no CHO
2 Simple Carbohydrates

Annotations:

  • These carbohydrates are composed of sugars (such as fructose and glucose) which have simple chemical structures composed of only one sugar (monosaccharides) or two sugars (disaccharides). Simple carbohydrates are easily and quickly utilized for energy by the body because of their simple chemical structure, often leading to a faster rise in blood sugar and insulin secretion from the pancreas – which can have negative health effects.
2.1 Monosaccharides

Annotations:

  • Mono' meaning ‘one’, monosaccarides is a carbohydrate made up of a single sugar unit
2.1.1 Glucose

Annotations:

  • most abundant monosaccharide, circulates in the blood
2.1.2 Galactose

Annotations:

  • that doesn't occur freely in nature very often, its the molecule that makes up half of milk sugar
2.1.3 Fructose

Annotations:

  • also referred to as fruit sugar, Fructose is made up of half sugar, in honey and high-fructose corn syrup, and it's used to sweeten many drinks and foods
2.2 Disaccharides

Annotations:

  • ‘Di' meaning ‘two', disaccharides are made out of two molecules
2.2.1 Maltose

Annotations:

  • is actually made up of 2 molecules of glucose. It's formed when starch is digested and is broken down by salivary amylase
2.2.2 Sucrose

Annotations:

  •  made up of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose (table sugar)
2.2.3 Lactose

Annotations:

  • is made up of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose. also referred to as milk sugar, people with lactose intolerance lack or don’t make enough of the enzyme lactase to break down lactose
3 Complex Carbohydrates

Annotations:

  • These carbohydrates have more complex chemical structures, with three or more sugars linked together (known as oligosaccharides and polysaccharides).  Many complex carbohydrate foods contain fiber, vitamins and minerals, and they take longer to digest – which means they have less of an immediate impact on blood sugar, causing it to rise more slowly. But other so called complex carbohydrate foods such as white bread and white potatoes contain mostly starch but little fiber or other beneficial nutrients.
3.1 Polysaccharides

Annotations:

  • ‘Poly' meaning ‘many’
3.1.1 Glycogen

Annotations:

  • made of highly branched chains of glucose – branching allows for quick breakdown to glucose (if you should need it for energy (no food for long time) your body would break down the glycogen, to some degree, to give you some glucose) it's the storage form of glucose in humans and animals, we store glycogen in our liver and our muscles
3.1.2 Starch

Annotations:

  •  is a little bit different in the sense that, that's the storage form of glucose in plants, consist of either straight or branched chains of glucose – starchy foods include breads, legumes and starchy vegetables
3.1.3 Fiber

Annotations:

  • is made up of either straight or branched chains of monosaccharides – human enzymes can't break down many of these sugar links (indigestible) nonabsorbable plant remnan- so we don't get any calories from fiber
4 Glycemic index

Annotations:

  • Dividing carbohydrates into simple and complex, however, does not account for the effect of carbohydrates on blood sugar and chronic diseases. To explain how different kinds of carbohydrate-rich foods directly affect blood sugar, the glycemic index was developed and is considered a better way of categorizing carbohydrates, especially starchy foods.
4.1 low-glycemic foods rating of > 55

Annotations:

  • Foods with a low glycemic index have been shown to help control type 2 diabetes and improve weight loss.
4.2 high-glycemic foods rating of 70-100

Annotations:

  • Eating many high-glycemic-index foods – which cause powerful spikes in blood sugar – can lead to an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, (2) heart disease, (3), (4) and overweight, (5,6) (7). There is also preliminary work linking high-glycemic diets to age-related macular degeneration, (8) ovulatory infertility, (9) and colorectal cancer. (10)
4.3 medium-level foods rating of 56-69
4.4 glycemic load

Annotations:

  • One thing that a food’s glycemic index does not tell us is how much digestible carbohydrate – the total amount of carbohydrates excluding  fiber – it delivers. That’s why researchers developed a related way to classify foods that takes into account both the amount of carbohydrate in the food in relation to its impact on blood sugar levels. This measure is called the glycemic load.
  •  A food’s glycemic load is determined by multiplying its glycemic index by the amount of carbohydrate the food contains. In general, a glycemic load of 20 or more is high, 11 to 19 is medium, and 10 or under is low.  
4.4.1 best: Low glycemic load > 10

Annotations:

  • Apples, Oranges, Carrots, Kidney beans, Black beans, Lentils, Cashews, Peanuts, Bran cereals, Wheat tortilla, Skimmed milk
4.4.2 medium glycemic load (11-19)

Annotations:

  • Bulgur: 3/4 cup cooked Brown rice: 3/4 cup cooked Pearled barley: 1 cup cooked Oatmeal: 1 cup cooked Rice cakes: 3 cakes Whole grain bread: 1 slice Whole-grain pasta: 1 1/4 cup cooked
4.4.3 high glycemic load (20+)

Annotations:

  • Couscous: 1 cup cooked Baked potato French fries Refined breakfast cereal: 1 oz Sugar-sweetened beverages: 12 oz Candy bars: 1 2-oz bar  White basmati rice: 1 cup cooked White-flour pasta: 1 1/4 cup cooked
5 Carbohydrate basics
5.1 Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of energy, the brain prefers glucose or carbohydrate for energy, as do most of other human muscles and tissues

Annotations:

  • Carbohydrates provide the body with glucose, which is converted to energy used to support bodily functions and physical activity.
5.2 Carbs are sugar molecules and chains of sugar molecules
5.3 Carbohydrates are molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, abbr > 'CHO'
6 Dietary Reference Intakes for CHO
6.1 Recommended Dietary Allowance: 45-65% CHO from total calories

Annotations:

  • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%-98%) healthy people.
6.1.1 age 1-70+ 130g CHO/day (absolute min amount)

Annotations:

  • The Institute of Medicine (USA) tells us that all human beings need an absolute minimum of 130 grams of carbohydrate a day. We know if you eat less than 130 grams of carb a day, you're not going to be getting all the amounts of different important vitamins, minerals etc that your body needs.
6.1.1.1 520 kcal CHO/day (absolute min amount)

Annotations:

  • 130g x 4 cal/g = 520 kcal per day from CHO (there are 4 cal per gram in CHO)
6.1.2 CHO = 4 kcal per gram
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