1930s

Shelby Wood
Mind Map by Shelby Wood, updated more than 1 year ago
Shelby Wood
Created by Shelby Wood almost 6 years ago
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Description

Great Depression, Dust Bowl, and Beginning of WWII

Resource summary

1930s
1 Culture
1.1 Infrastructure
1.1.1 Boulder (Hoover) Dam - 1935
1.1.2 Empire State Building - 1931
1.2 Jesse Owens - 1936

Annotations:

  • Wins 4 gold medals at Berlin Olympics Countered the Aryan racial superiority Nazi propaganda
1.3 Aviation
1.3.1 Amelia Earhart

Annotations:

  • 1932 - First woman to fly solo across the Atlantic  1937 - Disappears
1.3.2 Charles Lindbergh

Annotations:

  • ?1920s? - First man to fly from NY one day to Paris the next day 1932 - His baby is kidnapped and murdered Becomes an American icon and hero until WWII when he is labeled a Nazi-sympathizer for sharing their Anti-Semetic views and his isolationist desires
1.3.3 Hindenburg (1937)

Annotations:

  • Bursts into flames while attempting to moor at NJ
1.4 Media
1.4.1 Literature

Annotations:

  • Often blunt and direct in its social criticism Notable authors: John Steinbeck (poor, working-class struggle), Margaret Mitchell, Henry Miller, F. Scott Fitzgerald (Gilded perspectives?)
1.4.1.1 "Grapes of Wrath" (1939)

Annotations:

  • John Steinbeck Story about Mid-western family moving to California during the Dust Bowl/Great Depression
1.4.1.2 "Brave New World"

Annotations:

  • Aldous Huxley
1.4.1.3 Life magazine
1.4.1.4 "Gone with the Wind" (1936)

Annotations:

  • By Margaret Mitchell Southern Literature Adapted into a famous movie
1.4.2 Film and Radio
1.4.2.1 "War of the Worlds" (1938)

Annotations:

  • Causes panic because of its believability So realistic that it frightened many people
1.4.2.2 Wizard of Oz (1939)
1.4.2.3 Fred Astaire
1.4.2.4 "Gone with the Wind"
1.4.2.5 Clark Gable
1.4.2.6 Shirley Temple
1.4.3 Music: Big band/swing
1.4.4 Bank robbers are considered celebrities

Annotations:

  • 1934 - Public Enemy Number 1 (John Herbert Dillinger) killed in FBI shoot-out 1934 - Bonnie and Clyde killed in FBI shoot-out
1.4.5 World Fair Opens in NY (1939)

Annotations:

  • First expo focused on the future "Dawn of a New Day"Westinghouse Time Capsule - 3 messages - Einstein, Robert Andrews Millikan, and Thomas Mann - People have worked to create new systems of language for future readers (since the English language will not exist that far in the future) - Items: Life magazine, kewpie doll, one dollar in change, camel cigarettes, RKO newsreel, and more - Last item: hat (put in by a woman)
1.5 Protests
1.5.1 Bonus Army March (1932)

Annotations:

  • Veterans who were demanding that their paychecks, which were to be given in the 1940s, be given to them now
1.5.2 Steel Strike (1937)

Annotations:

  • Chicago Little steel companies wouldn't sign union contracts (U.S. Steel did)
1.5.3 Autoworkers Strike (1936)

Annotations:

  • Detroit
1.6 Fascism, Nazism, and extreme Communism gain followers

Annotations:

  • Response to worldwide poverty People saw big businesses and inefficient democracies as reasons for Depression Believed that government-control would be beneficial in restoring and maintaining order
1.7 Inventions
1.7.1 RADAR
1.7.2 Jet engine
1.7.3 Polaroid
2 Economics
2.1 Unemployment
2.1.1 1932 - 24.5%
2.1.2 1933 - 1 out of 3
2.2 Shantytowns (aka Hoovervilles)
2.3 Hitchhiking & Riding the Rails
2.3.1 Dangerous
2.3.2 Safer, Legal
2.3.3 Hobos (2 mil. men; 8000 women)
2.3.4 "The Grapes of Wrath" & "Sullivan's Travels"
2.3.5 "Wild Boys of the Road" - to scare young people
2.4 Keynes - 1936
2.5 Lost jobs; cut wages; fewer hours
3 Politics
3.1 Presidents
3.1.1 Herbert Hoover

Annotations:

  • 31st President
3.1.1.1 Government should buffer but not interfere

Annotations:

  • Claimed WWI caused issues - European reparations Increased tariffs (intended to protect US industry) - Stifled international trade - Europe retaliated - Less trade = fewer jobs Wouldn't abandon Gold Standard after Britain did which further froze international trade Reconstruction Finance Corporation - Provided financial support to state and local governments - Provided loans to banks, railroads, and other businesses - BAIL-OUT PROGRAM Encouraged private charity
3.1.1.2 Disliked by public because he didn't do anything
3.1.2 Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)

Annotations:

  • 32nd PresidentInaugurated 1933 Served four terms (1933-1945) - Died in last term (VP Truman becomes president)
3.1.2.1 NEW DEAL
3.1.2.2 Gov must step-in and help
3.2 Legislation
3.2.1 Social Security Act (1935)

Annotations:

  • FDR first president to advocate federal assistance for the elderly
3.2.2 Wealth Tax (1935)

Annotations:

  • Roosevelt Revenue Act Progressive tax that took up to 75% of the highest incomes
3.2.3 Emergency Relief Appropriation Act (1935)

Annotations:

  • Large-scale public works program for the jobless that included the WPA (particularly, art, writing, and theater grants)
3.2.4 Neutrality Act (1935)

Annotations:

  • Effort to keep the US out of the war in Europe
3.2.5 Indian Reorganization Act (1934)

Annotations:

  • Reversal of Dawes Act Allows Indians to... - self-government - have communal-style holdings of land - manage their assets and provisions
3.2.6 Smoot-Hawley Act (1930)

Annotations:

  • Raised duties on imports Responsible for reducing US imports/exports by more than half Highly counterproductive, contributed to the depth and length of the global Depression
3.2.7 Fair Labor Standards Act (1938)

Annotations:

  • "Wages and Hours Bill" - 40-hour work week - National minimum wage - Time-and-a-half overtime for certain jobs - Prohibited "oppressive child labor" (18+ dangerous jobs, 16> during school hours)
3.2.8 21st Amendment (1933)

Annotations:

  • Repealed Amendment 18 Ended Prohibition
3.2.9 Wagner Act (1935)

Annotations:

  • Guarantees workers' rights to join unions and bargain collectively
3.3 New Deal Programs
3.3.1 TVA - 1933

Annotations:

  • Tennessee Valley Authority Federal government build series of dams to prevent flooding and sell electricity Brought electricity to the poorest region in Tennessee (they still benefit from this today) - Enabled them to improve living conditions - Enabled them to start modern businesses and factories - This created better jobs
3.3.2 WPA - 1935

Annotations:

  • Works Progress Administration 8.5 million construction (and other) workers Provided work in arts, theater, and literary projects
3.3.3 CCC - 1933

Annotations:

  • Civilian Conservation Corps Run by US Army: barracks, boot camp, PT, 3 meals3.5 million young men employed at work campsReforestation and conservation tasks (planted trees, created state parks, etc.)Removed surplus of workers from citiesProvided health conditions for boysProvided money for familiesIncluded blacks and Indians (but were segregated)
3.3.4 AAA - 1933

Annotations:

  • Agricultural Adjustment Act Crop subsidies to reduce productionEducational programs to teach methods of preventing soil erosion Controlled seven basic crops (corn, wheat, cotton, rice, peanuts, tobacco, and milk) 1937 - declared unconstitutional (rewritten and passed again)
3.3.5 FDIC - 1933

Annotations:

  • Glass-Steagall Act Federally insured bank deposits (250,000) to prevent bank failures Helped increase confidence so people started putting more money back into the banks, creating more credit, and creating a flowing economy
3.3.6 REA - 1935

Annotations:

  • Rural Electrification Administration Farmers join cooperatives to bring electricity to farms By 1940, 40% of farms were electrified
3.3.7 PWA - 1935

Annotations:

  • Public Works Administration $3.3 billion appropriation from Congress for public works projects
3.3.8 FSA - 1935/1937

Annotations:

  • Farm Security Administration Low-interest loans to tenant farmers Built model cooperative farmsteads Photographers set up publicity department to explain its purpose - Dorothea Lange - Arthur Rothstein  
3.3.9 SEC - 1934

Annotations:

  • Securities and Exchange Commission Regulated stock market and restricted margin buying   * Fixed the financial problems associated with the Depression * Restored consumers' faith in the market = increased purchasing/banking = flow
3.4 WWII Begins
3.4.1 Germany begins persecution of Jews (1938)
3.4.2 Germany attacks Poland (1939)

Annotations:

  • WWII officially begins
3.4.3 Russia invades Finland (1939)
3.5 Frances Perkins

Annotations:

  • First woman to hold a cabinet seat (1933)
4 Envronment
4.1 Dust Bowl
4.1.1 Causes
4.1.1.1 Poor farming practices

Annotations:

  • Cutting down trees -> no wind block, no soil stabilization Overuse of land for same crops -> reduces soil nutrition -> dust
4.1.1.2 Severe drought (1931-1939)
4.1.1.3 Strong winds
4.1.2 Legislation passed to (1) regulate supply, (2) restore soil, (3) teacher and encourage better farming practices
4.1.3 Reponses/Effects
4.1.3.1 Massive migration to California
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