Bone Fractures

Jane Wong
Mind Map by Jane Wong, updated more than 1 year ago
Jane Wong
Created by Jane Wong about 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Bone Fractures, created by Jane Wong on 03/04/2015.
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Bone Fractures
1 INCOMPLETE (predominantly in children- bones are more bendable)
1.1 bowing- acute plastic bowing (rickets)
1.2 torus- buckling of cortex
1.3 greenstick- fractured bone on one side with other side intact
2 COMPLETE
2.1 simple
2.2 comminuted- fragmented pieces of bone
2.3 open- bone protrudes through skin
3 SPECIAL TYPES
3.1 FATIGUE "march"- constant stress (e.g. jogging)
3.2 INSUFFICIENCY- abnormal bone and normal stress
3.3 pathologic- has lytic area (loss of tissue)
4 DIRECTION AND OTHER FEATURES
4.1
4.2
4.2.1 IMPACTED fracture- bone breaks into multiple fragments which are driven into each other
4.2.2 DEPRESSION fracture- fragment is depressed below the normal surface
5 PROCESS OF HEALING
5.1 Fracture causes bleeding > elevates the periosteum. Periosteum is pushed out > procallus formation forms a bridge > callus is formed and reabsorbed
5.2
5.3 PERIOSTEAL REACTION
5.3.1 radiological observation with no clinical equivalent– patient may have bone pain and tenderness
5.3.2 lifting of periosteum stimulates osteoclasts to form new bone
5.3.3 caused by tumour, pus, haemorrhage, increased vascularity or serum
5.3.4 Types of periosteal reaction due to bone tumour
5.3.4.1 E: "onion skin", solid periosteal reaction in layers, caused by aggressive tumour (malignant)
5.3.4.2 E-G caused by aggressive tumours
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