A2 Biology

Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

A-Levels Biology Mind Map on A2 Biology, created by cameron9hubbard on 09/20/2013.

Created by cameron9hubbard about 6 years ago
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A2 Biology
1 Ecosystems
1.1 Producers
1.1.1 Synthesises their own glucose
1.1.2 e.g. plants
1.2 Consumers
1.2.1 Obtain energy by feeding
1.3 Decomposers
1.3.1 Feed on dead waste
1.3.2 e.g. bacteria, fungi, maggots
1.4 Trophic Levels
1.5 Energy Losses
1.5.1 1-3% lost from sun to producer May not hit a leaf 90% of sun reflected or absorbed by atmosphere, clouds & dust Only 680 & 700 nm wavelengths used in photosynthesis
1.5.2 5-10% lost from producer to consumer Energy used in respirtation Movement Heat Loss Some organisms left uneaten Some material is egested as faecal matter
2 Pests and Productivity
2.1 'Pests are any organisms that have a negative impact on food or space for humans, or cause disease
2.2 Control pests = increased productivity
2.3 Effective pesticide
2.3.1 Cost Effective
2.3.2 Specific
2.3.3 Easy to apply
2.3.4 Kills pests quickly
2.3.5 Not accumulate
2.3.6 Biodegrades
2.4 Chemical
2.4.1 + Fast Acting Easy to apply / acquire
2.4.2 - Non-specific Can pollute water Reduce Biodiversity Resistance Expensive
2.5 Biological
2.5.1 Uses natural enemies to control pests
2.5.2 + Specific 1-time application No resistance possible
2.5.3 - Can affect non-pests Expensive Time lag Control may become a pest
3 Senses
3.1 Used to respond to stimuli and enable survival
3.1.1 Better senses = better ability to respond = survival
3.1.2 A stimulus is a detectable change in the internal or external environment
3.1.3 Stimuli are detected by receptors in sense organs A receptor is a cell which transforms energy from the stimulus to another form
3.2 Stimulus
3.2.1 Receptor Sensory Neurone Intermediate Neurone Motor Neurone Affector Organ Response
3.3 Messenger Systems
3.3.1 Chemicals / Hormones
3.3.2 Neurones / Nervous System
3.4 Responses
3.4.1 Taxis Simple response with a direction
3.4.2 Kinesis Rapid , random movement in unpleasent stimulus Until -ve stimuli is gone
3.4.3 Tropisms Growth movement of a plant Cels on outside of the turn must grow most Growth hormone is Auxin aka IAA Accumulates on lower side of plant Light - phototropism Into ground - geotropism Water - hydrotropism
3.4.4 Nervous Systems Central (CNS) Brain Spine Peripheral (PNS) Nerves (Neurones) Sensory Motor Voluntary Muscles Autonomic Cardiac Muscles Glands Autonomic
3.5 Reflex Arcs
3.5.1 Involuntary, so keeps brain free
3.5.2 Protects the body from harmful stimuli, effective at birth.
3.5.3 Fast, few synapses

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