Lipids (fats)

manu_maus
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Lipids (fats)
1 Triglycerides

Annotations:

  • 95% of dietary fat comes from triglycerides ("tri” meaning three) The major form of lipid in food & in the body.
  • Triglyceride are made from a glyceroll molecule & three fatty acids 
1.1 Fatty Acids
1.1.1 avoid: saturated fatty acids

Annotations:

  • Fatty acids are classified as saturated when each carbon atom is attached to as many hydrogen atoms as possible, so that no double bonds form (no carbon carbon double bonds)
  • Saturated Fatty Acids  are solid at room temperature.
1.1.2 best: unsaturated fatty acids

Annotations:

  • have carbon carbon double bonds
  • Fatty acids that are required by the human body but cannot be made in sufficient quantity from other substrates, and therefore must be obtained from food, are called essential fatty acids.
1.1.2.1 monounsaturated fatty acid (most healthy)

Annotations:

  • a monounsaturated fatty acid has one carbon carbon double bond
1.1.2.1.1 oleic acid (omega- 9 fatty acid)

Annotations:

  • food high in omega 9: Avocado, Peanut butter, Olives Sesame seeds Nuts: almonds, cashews, filberts, hazelnuts, macadamia, peanuts, pecans, pistachios 
  • oils high in omega 9: rapeseed,  olive,  peanut,  sesame
1.1.2.2 polyunsaturated fatty acid

Annotations:

  • a polyunsaturated fatty acid is one that has two or more points of unsaturation (two or more carbon carbon double bonds)
1.1.2.2.1 linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid)

Annotations:

  • food high in omega 6: Walnuts, Pumpkin & sunflower seeds,
  • oils high in omega 6: corn,  cottonseed,  safflower,  soybean
1.1.2.2.2 alpha-linoleic acid (omega-3 fatty acid)

Annotations:

  • food high in omega 3: fatty fish,  flax
2 lipid basics
2.1 Lipid is the chemical term for fat In the body, fats pad body’s organs, insulate & form cell membranes
2.2 Fats & oils = 9 kcal/gram (most energy dense macronutrient)
3 Dietary Reference Intake

Annotations:

  •  a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences
3.1 DRI: 20-35% kcal from fat
3.1.1 < 10% kcal from saturated fat (<20 g)

Annotations:

  • 0-1% kcal from trans fats
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