Democracies On The Defensive

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A Levels HISTORY Mind Map on Democracies On The Defensive, created by natashaaaa on 03/10/2015.

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Democracies On The Defensive
  1. Abyssinian Crisis
    1. October 1935
      1. 1932
        1. Mussolini started planning the annexation of Abyssinia
          1. This would provide land for Italian settlers and connect Eritrea with Italian - Somali land.
          2. Mussolini was convinced that neither Britain or France would get involved.
            1. France had already offered a free-hand to Mussolini.
              1. Britain were keen to reach a compromise to avert a crisis - they wanted to give Italy control without the annexation.
              2. CONSEQUENCES
                1. October 13th: LON condemmed the actions of Italy and voted for sanctions.
                  1. December: Foreign ministers of F and B produced a plan to give 2/3 of Abyssinia under italian control, but it was then dropped.
                    1. Gave Hitler opportunity to illegally rearm the Rhineland
                  2. Remilitarisation of the Rhineland.
                    1. Remilitarised on March 7th 1936
                      1. Hitler planned to re-occupy it in 1937 but exploited the Abyssinian crisis instead!
                        1. The combination of the diplomatic situation and the need to distract Germany from its economic problems meant it was remilitarised earlier.
                        2. German army started Prep in Dec 1935. They only sent a few soldiers at first who were lightly equipped.
                          1. Didn't want France suspecting the take over.
                          2. France didn't want to retaliate if they weren't backed by Britain
                            1. MAGINOT LINE: A line of concrete forts constucted by France along its border with G (Eastern Front)
                              1. British public just saw it as Hitler 'walking into his own back garden'
                              2. CONSEQUENCES: the destruction of the Locarno settlements / treaties; Nazi Germany was strenghtened.
                              3. Spanish Civil War
                                1. July 1936: nationalist revolution lead by the army broke out against the Spanish Republican Government
                                  1. Nationalists looked to Germany and Italy for help and the Republicans looked to Britain, France and Russia
                                    1. Republicans asked France for help but France said no cos they realised it would lead to divided French society (which was already politically divided) and Britain were not intervening; so intervening would ruin any chance of a anglo french negotiation.
                                  2. Hitler wanted to stop Spain becoming Communist but also wanted to distract the western powers so he could continue his actions without intervention
                                    1. Agreed to provide a fleet of transport aircraft to Francos men (led the nationalists) and dispatched 6000 troops.
                                    2. Mussolini also agreed to assist Franco.
                                      1. To stop spreading war Br and Fr introduced a non intervention agreement which was signed by European Powers except Germany and Italy
                                        1. Republican Government approached Soviet Russia in sept 1936: sent military advisers and equipment
                                          1. Stalin didn't want a nationalist victory in spain cos it would strengthen forces of Fascism and make a german attack on the Coviet Union more likey. But by 1937 he realised the Republicans could not win; reduced the flow of arms so as not to continue conflict. This was successful.
                                          2. CONSEQUENCES: polarised public left/right opinion; threatened Fr with encirclement; Germany benefitted the most
                                          3. The Axis Powers Align 1936 (Berlin-Rome Axis)
                                            1. Causes
                                              1. Increase in friendly relations between Rome and Berlin.
                                                1. Br refused to acknowledge that Italy had control of Abyssinia - pushing Italy towards German relations.
                                                  1. Hitler and Mussolini cooperated to block a British idea to update the Locarno treaty
                                                  2. October Protocols
                                                    1. The understanding between Italy and Germany over Austria lead to the German-Italian agreement
                                                      1. Signed in Berlin October 1936
                                                        1. Mussolini announced the new alignment at a meeting in Milan Oct 1st: "understanding between certain countries.. Berlin torne line is an axis around which.. European states will collaborate around peace".
                                                        2. CONSEQUENCES/SIGNIFICANCE
                                                          1. Germany and Italy were now an alliance and Franco - italian agreements had failed.
                                                            1. Showed how weak any agreements were
                                                              1. Democracies were looking at a Europe where they were on the defensive from dictatorship that had risen; growing in power and aligning
                                                            2. Arms Race/German Rearmament
                                                              1. Hossbach Memorandum
                                                                1. Nov 5 1937
                                                                  1. Hitler called a special meeting attended by his commanders in cheif and war ministers
                                                                    1. What Hitler was saying was recorded as his 'Last will and testament'; stressed his main aim was Lebensraum within Europe rather than African colonies . He would move against Czech and Austira before 1945 as France was distracted by Italy.
                                                                      1. SIGNIFICANCE: showed Hitler wasn't after African land and was his first official declaration which lead to the arms race
                                                                      2. ARMS RACE
                                                                        1. Germany
                                                                          1. 4 year plan to prepare for war: concerntrated on synthetic materials; raised taxes; by august 1939 lufftwaffe had 4000 frontline aircraft and 2758000 men.
                                                                            1. Rearmament would be done by mid 1940's
                                                                            2. France
                                                                              1. cause big economic and social problems; strikes in paris against diverting all resources to rearmament
                                                                                1. Rearmament slow due to bad economy
                                                                                  1. military expenditure increased by 6 times between 1936-9
                                                                                    1. Aimed to complete rearmament by 1940
                                                                                    2. Britain
                                                                                      1. 4 Year plan prioritising navy and air force
                                                                                        1. incresed miliatry experience
                                                                                          1. aimed to complete rearmament by 1940
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