22.214.171.124.1 This constricted the flow of the
water through the village, forcing
the river to burst its banks.
126.96.36.199.1 Tarmac and concrete had been put in place by
people living in the village. This means that the
water cannot soak through the ground,
resulting in more surface runoff reaching the
river at one time, increasing the flood risk. Also,
the drains take water very quickly to the river.
188.8.131.52 Heavy Rainfall
184.108.40.206.1 Heavy rainfall is less likely to infiltrate into the soil and
will reach the river quickly. This will result in a rapid
increase in river discharge. It can also saturate the soil so
it cannot hold any more water and so more water reaches
the river at a time. This also increases the flood risk.
220.127.116.11.2 Over 60mm of rainfall fell in
two hours (a month's rainfall)
18.104.22.168.3 2 million tonnes of water
surged through the village.
22.214.171.124 Impermeable Ground
126.96.36.199.1 There are clay-rich soils. Rainwater cannot
soak through this and so goes straight to
the river as surface runoff, increasing the
amount of discharge and so the flood risk.
188.8.131.52.2 The first two layers of rock below the clay rich soils are
impermeable: slate and shale. This meant that any rainfall
that penetrated the soil was unable to get past the rock.
184.108.40.206 Confluence of Two Rivers
220.127.116.11.1 Boscastle stands where two valleys meet, formed by the rivers Valency and
Jordan. This increases the amount of discharge and so increases the flood risk.
18.104.22.168 Topography of the Surrounding Area
22.214.171.124.1 Boscastle is in a valley, with high ground either side of it. The slopes of the valley are
very steep and so rain water rushes to the river quickly, increasing the flood risk.
126.96.36.199 Damage to and Loss of Property
188.8.131.52.1 Homes, Businesses and cars belonging to more than
1000 people were swept away. Around 75 cars and
six buildings were washed into the sea. This is an
impact on people as homes were lost and money
had to be spent on repairing and replacing property.
184.108.40.206.2 32 of the 75 cars that were swept away were never recovered.
220.127.116.11.3 Several boats were lost.
18.104.22.168 Loss of Income
22.214.171.124.1 Income from tourism was lost as people were unlikely to visit the area.
This had an impact on livelihoods as people lost their jobs or their
businesses lost money. This has a negative impact on the local economy.
126.96.36.199 Insurance Claims
188.8.131.52.1 Vast numbers of insurance claims were made by people
and businesses to cover the costs of the damage.
184.108.40.206 No Lives Were Lost
220.127.116.11.1 This is partly due to the rapid response of the emergency
services, which is often the case in HICs such as the UK (due to
well trained emergency services and weather forecasting to give
18.104.22.168.2 The worst injury that anyone experienced was a broken thumb.
22.214.171.124 Hundreds of Trees Were Uprooted
and Wildlife Habitats Were Flooded
126.96.36.199.1 This caused damage to the environment.
2 River Management: River Nene, Northampton
2.1.1 Heavy rain on 9th April 1998 caused the River
Nene in Northampton to overflow, flooding the
town and causing two deaths. As a result it was
decided that the River Nene needed to be managed
in order to protect the city from future flooding.
2.2 Hard Engineering
2.2.1 Building an Embankment in 2002
(Cost £2 Million)
188.8.131.52 The level of the land at Weedon was raised by 10m by building a clay embankment
across the river valley of a tributary of the River Nene. Water would be stored behind
the embankment in times of flood. This would result in less water entering the River
Nene, and so reducing the flood risk at Northampton. The embankment has been
landscaped to minimise the visual impact and to create habitats for local wildlfie..
184.108.40.206 At Foot Meadow, 4m high floodwalls
have been built to stop water from
spreading out from the channel in
order to protect housing, industry, the
railway and the Castle Inn.
2.3 Soft Engineering
2.3.1 Creation of a Washland
220.127.116.11 A washland was created in the Upton area
where 1.2 million cubic metres of water
could be stored during times of flood. This
means that less water will reach the River
Nene at Northampton, and so reducing the
flood risk to the city.
2.3.2 Improvements to the Flood
Warning System (2003)
18.104.22.168 Residents in the Far Cotton area would be given 2 hours notice
of a flood occurring. This would give time for people to protect
their properties and valuables, and evacuate if needed. This,
therefore reduces the cost and impact of the flood.