River Processes and Landforms

Amber Patel
Mind Map by Amber Patel, updated 2 months ago More Less
Created by 1jdjdjd1 almost 7 years ago
Amelia Williams
Copied by Amelia Williams 2 months ago
Amber Patel
Copied by Amber Patel 2 months ago


This took me a long time! Hope it helps with anybody's study! :)

Resource summary

River Processes and Landforms
1 River Features
1.1 Source
1.1.1 The point where a river begins
1.2 Tributary
1.2.1 A small river or stream that joins up with a larger one
1.3 Confluence
1.3.1 The point at which a tributary joins the river
1.4 Mouth
1.4.1 The point where a river enters the sea
1.5 River Basin
1.5.1 An entire area drained by a river and its tributaries
1.6 Watershed
1.6.1 High ground that separates one river basin from another
2 Stages in a river's course
2.1 Upper course
2.1.1 Inter-locking spurs
2.1.2 V- shaped valley
2.1.3 Waterfalls and gorges
2.1.4 Sources
2.1.5 Steep slope
2.2 Middle course
2.2.1 Moderatley sloping land
2.2.2 Meanders
2.2.3 River cliffs and beaches
2.2.4 Gently sloping
2.3 Lower course
2.3.1 Flood plains
2.3.2 Ox-bow lakes
2.3.3 estuary/mouth
2.3.4 Flat land
3 River processes of Erosion
3.1 Hydraulic action
3.1.1 The force of the moving water that helps break up rock over time.
3.2 Abrasion
3.2.1 When the material(the load) carried along by the river hits its banks and bed, wearing them away.
3.3 Attrition
3.3.1 The rounding of pebbles, stones when they hit off each other and the river bed as they move downstream.
4 The river deposits its load when:
4.1 It loses speed and has less energy.
4.2 The river's volume decreases.
4.3 It enters a flat or gently sloping plain.
4.4 It flows into a lake or the sea.
5 River Transportation
5.1 Suspension
5.1.1 Particles are lifted and carried by the river water.
5.2 Saltation
5.2.1 Particles are bounced along the river bed.
5.3 Traction
5.3.1 Large stones are dragged or rolled along the river bed.
5.4 Solution
5.4.1 Some minerals, such as calcium carbonate (limestone), are dissolved in the water.
6 Features of the Youthful Stage
6.1 V-shaped valley
6.2 Waterfalls
6.3 Gorge
6.4 Potholes
7 Features of the Mature Stage
7.1 Wider Valley
7.2 Meanders
7.3 Narrow flood plain
8 Features of the Old Stage
8.1 Oxbow lake
8.2 Levees
8.2.1 High banks along the river's channel. They form from river deposits
8.3 Delta
8.3.1 Form where some rivers enter the sea. They are often triangular in shape. They form from river deposits, which are deposited when the river slows down as it enters the sea
8.4 Large Meanders
9 People Interfere with rivers by building dams or man-made levees
10 Rivers interfere with people by flooding.
10.1 1. Towns, villages and individual houses may be flooded when rivers overflow their banks
10.2 2. Crops such as cereals and hay may be damaged on flood plains
10.3 3. Floods may sweep away bridges, walls and people's homes
11 Advantages of river valleys to people
11.1 1. Flood plains are used to grow some kinds of crops and rear animals for food
11.2 2.Level land in valleys is used to build towns and cities
11.3 3. Early settlers used riverside sites for water supply, food supply and transport facilities on the river.
11.4 4. Norman settlers used rivers as a mode of defense around their castles
11.5 5. Shallow places in rivers were used as crossing points. Most of our towns and cities developed at crossing points
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