Mind Map by C R, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by C R almost 5 years ago


According to OCR Biology Specification (used for summer 2015)

Resource summary

1 Cardiovascular system
1.1 Atherosclerosis
1.1.1 The deposition of fatty substances in the walls of the arteries
1.1.2 CO damages endothelium of arteries Damage repaired by phagocytes Encourages growth of smooth muscle and deposition of fatty substances
1.1.3 Deposition of fatty substances, fibres, dead blood cells, plateletes are atheromas High blood pressure increases deposition of cholesterol
1.1.4 Atheromas eventually form plaque, sticking out into lumen Artery wall becomes rougher and less flexible Reduces size of lumen of artery Reduces blood flow
1.1.5 Nicotine causes increase in blood pressure Damage to arteries More atheromas
1.2 Coronary heart disease (CHD)
1.2.1 A disease of the heart caused by malfunction of the coronary arteries
1.2.2 Narrowing of coronary arteries means reduce blood flow to heart muscles Less oxygen to the heart
1.2.3 CO binds irreversibly with haemoglobin, reducing the amount of oxygen to tissues, e.g. heart
1.2.4 Nicotine makes platelets sticky, increasing chances of blood clot (thrombus) Can cause heart attack if in coronary arteries
1.3 Stroke
1.3.1 The death of part of the brain due to a lack of blood flow to that part of the brain and subsequent oxygen deficiency
1.3.2 Thrombus floating around blocks a small artery leading to brain
1.3.3 Haemorrhage - artery leading to brain bursts
1.3.4 Nicotine increases risk of blood clots
1.3.5 CO reduces amount of oxygen as binds to haemoglobin
2 Gas exchange system
2.1 Lung cancer
2.1.1 Symptoms Continual coughing Shortness of breath Chest pain Blood coughed up in sputum
2.1.2 Tar contains carcinogenic compounds Enter nucleus of cells of lung tissue Change genetic material - mutation If mutation in genes controlling cell division then uncontrolled cell division takes place - cancer
2.2 Emphysema
2.2.1 Loss of elasticity in the alveoli, which causes alveoli to burst
2.2.2 Lungs have reduced SA Decreases rate of gaseous exchange
2.2.3 Symptoms Shortness of breath Fatigue Shallow and rapid breathing
2.2.4 Foreign particles in smoke get trapped in alveoli Causes inflammation and damages epithelium Phagocytes attracted to area Release enzymes to move out of blood and into airways Elastase damages elastic tissue in lung lining Reduces elasticity so do not push air out when recoiling Bronchioles collapse and trap air in alveoli Causes alveoli to burst as pressure in lungs increase
2.3 COPD
2.3.1 Combination of diseases, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema
2.4 Chronic bronchitis
2.4.1 Inflammation of the lining of the airways
2.4.2 Tar paralyses cilia and causes goblet cells to produce more mucus Bacteria etc multiply and cause lung infection
2.4.3 Symptoms Irritation in the lungs Continual coughing Coughing up mucus filled with bacteria and WBCs
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