Stage 1 = Triumvirate
Kamenev, Zinoviev and Stalin against Trotsky
Policy issues - World REV
Stage 2 = Duumvirate
Stalin and Bukharin against Kamenev and Zinoviev and Trostky
Policy Issues - NEP
Stage 3 = Stalin Rejects NEP and in favour of Rapid industrialisation against Bukharin Tomsky and Rykov
2.1 Position = Secretary General and
Head of Central Control Commission and Head of ORGBURO
2.2 Mistakes of the Contenders
2.4 Being Pragmatic
3 Five Year Plans Successful?
3.1 First 5YP 1928-1932 = Heavy Industry = Moderately Successful
Iron, Coal, Steel and Oil laid foundations for Rearmament
Production of Oil and Coal Doubled!
3.2 Second 5YP 1933-1937= Consumer Goods and Heavy Industry = Moderately Success
3.3 Third 5YP = Preparation for War = Moderately Successful
4 How successful was collectivisation?
4.1 By 1939 19 million People left
countryside for towns and Cities
4.2 The amount of Grain Procured
More than Doubled
4.3 Consequences of Collectivisation
1) The effects on Rural Areas
about 10 Million Exiled and 10 Million died in famine 1932-1934
2) Industrialisation and Urbanisation
3) Political Strength of Stalin
5 How did Stalin’s social policies change the lives of women and children (UNDER THE GREAT RETREAT)? =Significantly
5.1 Women- Educational Opportunities Expanded = By
1939 they made up half of Population in UNI
5.2 Women 40% of Industrial Workforce
5.3 'Great Retreat' Expected Woman to return to
5.4 Stalin's Policies Significant But Contradictory
pulling women in opposite Directions
5.5 Family Life
5.5.1 BEFORE- Women Disadvantaged of policies in 1920s = Free
Love, Easy Divorced and Communal Living & Divorce Rates
5.5.2 AFTER- Stalin's Family code of 1936 Brought Financial
and Legal measures to Strengthen Marriage
126.96.36.199 Adultery= Criminal Offence/Divorce and Abortions more
Expensive/Awards were given for amount of Children
188.8.131.52.1 Propaganda Expressed Role of MEN to be Devoted Husbands
5.6.1 BEFORE- Radical Communists Urged Children to
challenge parents and teachers
184.108.40.206 AFTER- Stalin's Reversed this = Children need to respect
GOV and Parents
In 1920s EDU stressed Communist Ideals.
In 1931 EDU system was changed = New Curriculum emphasized literacy, maths and Core subjects.
- School discipline was harsh to prepare children for future work
- Homework was re-introduced and was to be set regularly
6 What was the most important result of the Great Terror/Repression?
6.1 1) Stalin's Political Dominance
6.2 2) Economic Impact
6.3 3) Social Impact
7 Why did Stalin introduce the First-Five Year Plan?
7.1 Economic Reasons = Industrialisation/NEP's
Failure/Still Behind other Countries
7.2 Political Reasons = Surpass
Lenin's Russia & Prepare for War
7.3 Ideological = Socialism
Serve the Working Class
8 Why was Stalin able to maintain his power 1928-1938 ?
8.1 Collectivisation = Control over Peasants
8.2 Reprepression =The Great Terror 1936-1938
8.3 Five Year Plans =Harsh Discipline
9 To what extent was Russia a totalitarian state? = Considerable Extent
9.1 The Great Terror 1936-1938
9.2 Collectivisation = Control over Peasants
9.3 Social Realism = Totalitarian Culture, it demanded that art forms should be
understood and appreciated by the whole people, and should be focused on
the importance of the hero as a role model for others. Socialist realism may
be illustrated through references to a number of art forms such as
literature, music, paintings, sculpture, film and architecture.
9.4 Stalin's Cult of Personality = was enforced through culture, and by
propaganda posters, education, and the renaming of
towns, cities, and mountains.
10 Why Russia Won the War?
10.1 Economy - Five Year Plans = Production of Tanks and Aircraft/
10.2 Russia's Patriotism
10.3 Lend- Lease 20% of USSR's Output
10.4 Stalin's Leadership- Reorganising of factories east
of Urals/J July 3rd 1941 Speech/Released officers
and gave control over decision - making