1 feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action that runs counter to one's customary conception of oneself
2 Leon Festinger
2.1 3 ways to reduce cognitive dissonance: by changing behaviour to
bring it in line with the dissonant cognition; by attempting to
justify our behaviour through changing one of the dissonant
cognitions; by attempting to justify our behaviour by adding new
3 Self affirmation: these distortions are aimed at
protecting one's image as a sensible, competent
person. Another addiitonal way is to try to bolster
the self concept in a different domain
3.1 Impact bias:the tendency to overestimate the intensity and
duration of our emotional reactions to future negative events
4 Rational behaviour versus rationalizing behaviour
4.1 Westen et al (2006)
4.1.1 Reasoning areas of the brain shut down when the participant was
confronted with dissonant information and the emotion circuits of the
brain lit up happily when the consonance is restored.
5.1 Decisions cause us to experience dissonaance- our likes and dislikes are distorted
5.1.1 Post decision dissonance: dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically
reducedby enhancing the attractiveness of the alternative and deevaluating the rejected
5.2 the more important the decision, the greater the dissonance. Decisions
can vary in how permanent they are.
5.2.1 The irrevocability of a decision increases dissonance and motivation to reduce
188.8.131.52 Lowballing: a technique used by
salespeople to create the illusion
that irrevocabilty exists.
184.108.40.206 1. Commitment of sorts does exist 2. Anticipation of
an exciting event 3.probabilty of a good deal.
6 Moral dilemmas
6.1 Moral dilemmas involve powerful implications for one's self esteem.
Dissonance reduction following a difficult moral decision can cause
people to behave either more or less ethicallly in the future
6.2 Judson Mills
6.2.1 Sixth graders who had cheated became more lenient
towards cheating and those who resisted the temptation
to cheat adopted a harsher attitude. The situation was
arranged so that it was impossible to win without
7 Justification of effort
7.1 The tendency for individuals to increase their liking for
something they have worked hard to attain
7.1.1 Aronson and Mills (1959)
220.127.116.11 College students volunteered to join a group that would be
meeting regularly to discuss various aspects of the psychology of
sex. Participants who underwent liittle or no effort regretted
agreeing to participate. Those that went through a severe
initiation convinced themselves that the discussion was a
8 Insufficient justification
8.1 Cognition that is not important not to cause pain to people you
like provides ample external justification for having told a
8.1.1 External justiifcation: a reason or an explanation for dissonant
personal behavior that resides outside the individual.
8.1.2 Internal justification: the reduction of dissonance by changing something
about oneself .
18.104.22.168 Counterattitudinal adovacy: stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's
private belief or attitude.
22.214.171.124 Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)
126.96.36.199.1 College students spent an hour performing boring and repetitive tasks. Half
were offered $20 (large external) to tell the next volunteer it was interesting
while the others were offered only $1 (small external) for lying. Those offered
more rated the activites dull and boring. Those paid $1 rated the task more
enjoyable. Insufficient ext justification they developed internal justification
and came to believe their lie
9 Power of mild punishment
9.1 The less severe you make the threat of punishment the less external
justification there is; the less external justification , thew greater the need
for internal justification
9.1.1 Insufficient punishment: dissonance aroused when individuals
lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired
activity or object , usually resulting in individual's devaluing the
forbidden actviity or object.
9.2 Aronson and Carlsmith (1963)
9.2.1 Chldren were asked to rate attractiveness of several toys. Attractive toy
was pointed out and children were told not to play with it. Half were
threatened with mild punishment if they disobeyed; the other half were
threatened with severe punishment. When the experiemnter left the
room, none of the children played with the forbidden toy. Children in
mild threat condiiton rated the forbidden toy as less attractive.
9.3 Self persuasion: a long lasting form of attitude change that results
from attempts at self justification