AS Level PE - Applied Exercise Physiology (Part 1)

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Mind Map on AS Level PE - Applied Exercise Physiology (Part 1), created by soph.warrener on 04/02/2015.

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AS Level PE - Applied Exercise Physiology (Part 1)
1 Health, Exercise and Fitness
1.1 Fitness is difficult to define as being fit means different things to different people.
1.1.1 Fitness is the ability to carry out everyday activities without undue fatigue.
1.2 Health is a state of physical, social and mental well-being where we are free from disease.
1.3 It is possible to be fit but unhealthy, e.g. a marathon runner could be suffering with influenza.
1.4 There are two divisions of fitness:
1.4.1 Health-Related Components
1.4.1.1 Cardiorespiratory Endurance
1.4.1.1.1 The ability of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to take in and transport oxygen to the working muscles where it can be utilised and aerobic performance maintained.
1.4.1.2 Muscular Endurance
1.4.1.2.1 The ability of a muscle or a group of muscles to undergo repeated contractions and withstand fatigue.
1.4.1.3 Maximum Strength
1.4.1.3.1 The maximum force that can be developed in a muscle or a group of muscles during a single maximal contraction.
1.4.1.4 Elastic Strength
1.4.1.4.1 The ability to overcome a resistance rapidly and prepare the muscle quickly for a sequential contraction of equal force.
1.4.1.5 Strength Endurance
1.4.1.5.1 The ability of a muscle or a group of muscles to undergo repeated contractions and withstand fatigue.
1.4.1.6 Speed
1.4.1.6.1 The maximum rate that a person can move over a specific distance.
1.4.1.7 Power
1.4.1.7.1 The amount of work done per unit of time.
1.4.1.8 Flexibility
1.4.1.8.1 The range of movement possible at a joint.
1.4.2 Skill-Related Components
1.4.2.1 Reaction Time
1.4.2.1.1 The time taken to initiate a response to a given stimulus.
1.4.2.2 Agility
1.4.2.2.1 The ability to move and change direction and position of the body quickly while maintaining good body control and without loss of speed.
1.4.2.3 Coordination
1.4.2.3.1 An organised working together of muscles and groups of muscles aimed at bringing about a purposeful movement such as running or swimming.
1.4.2.4 Balance
1.4.2.4.1 The maintenance of the body's centre of mass over the base of support.
1.5 Lifestyle Choices
1.5.1 Physical Activity
1.5.1.1 Factors that contribute to physical inactivity include:
1.5.1.1.1 Increased time spent on sedentary activities such as watching television and playing video games.
1.5.1.1.2 Increased car ownership.
1.5.1.1.3 Significant fall in the amount of walking and cycling undertaken.
1.5.1.2 Diseases attributable to physical inactivity include:
1.5.1.2.1 Cardiovascular diseases such as CHD.
1.5.1.2.2 Obesity.
1.5.1.2.3 Diabetes.
1.5.2 Diet
1.5.2.1 A well-balanced diet is essential for effective performance in sport and general well-being.
1.5.2.1.1 A diet rich in fruit & vegetables and complex carbohydrates can increase longevity and ward off chronic diseases such as CHD, Obesity and some cancers.
1.5.2.1.2 A diet high in fat, particularly saturated fat, salt and simple carbohydrates (such as sugars) increase the risk of these chronic diseases.
1.5.2.1.3 A poor diet coupled with inactivity can lead to obesity.
1.5.3 Work/Life Balance
1.5.3.1 Work Stressors:
1.5.3.1.1 Workload
1.5.3.1.2 Job Dissatisfaction
1.5.3.1.3 Insufficient Pay
1.5.3.1.4 Conflict
1.5.3.2 Family/Relationship Stressors
1.5.3.2.1 Disagreements with Spouses
1.5.3.2.2 Children
1.5.3.2.3 Caring for Ill Family Members
1.5.3.3 Social Stressors
1.5.3.3.1 Financial Pressures
1.5.3.3.2 Isolation
1.5.3.3.3 Lack of Social Support
1.5.3.4 Environmental Stressors
1.5.3.4.1 Noise from Neighbours
1.5.3.4.2 Pollution
1.5.3.4.3 Crime
1.5.3.5 Impacts of Stress on Health
1.5.3.5.1 Cardiovascular Diseases
1.5.3.5.1.1 CHD, High Blood Pressure
1.5.3.5.2 Ulcers
1.5.3.5.3 Irritable Bowel Syndrome
1.5.3.5.4 Diabetes
1.5.3.5.5 Obesity
1.5.3.5.6 Autoimmune Diseases
1.5.3.5.7 Skin Conditions
1.5.3.5.8 Migraines
1.5.4 Smoking
1.5.4.1 Restricted Transport of Oxygen
1.5.4.1.1 Carbon monoxide contained in cigarette smoke combines with haemoglobin and restricts oxygen absorption, making less available to the muscles.
1.5.4.2 Narrowing of Respiratory Airways
1.5.4.2.1 Inflammation of the lining of the respiratory airways and alveoli can restrict the passage of air and impede gaseous exchange and therefore the movement of oxygen into the bloodstream.
2 Nutrition - Eating for Performance (Part 1)
2.1 There are seven components of a healthy diet:
2.1.1 Carbohydrates
2.1.1.1 Carbohydrates are energy providers and is a macronutrient.
2.1.1.2 Carbohydrates are stored in the muscles and liver as glycogen.
2.1.1.3 The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy. They are also vital for the effective functioning of the nervous system.
2.1.2 Fats
2.1.2.1 Fats are energy providers and is a macronutrient.
2.1.2.2 Fats in the body are stored as triglycerides which break down into free fatty acids.
2.1.2.2.1 Energy is released through the oxidation of the free fatty acids.
2.1.2.3 Fats are the main energy for the body at rest and during light to moderate exercise.
2.1.2.3.1 They also help to protect our organs and keep us warm.
2.1.2.4 Foods high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are preferable to those high in saturated fat.
2.1.2.5 Fats are the main energy source for the body at rest and during light to moderate exercise.
2.1.2.6 Fats absorb fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E and K) which contribute to the release of energy by forming parts of enzymes.
2.1.2.7 Fats form a layer of insulation which can help keep the body warm when exercising in cold conditions such as in open water swimming.
2.1.2.8 Fats form a protective layer around vital organs such as the heart, liver and spleen.
2.1.3 Proteins
2.1.3.1 Proteins are the third and final energy-providing nutrient.
2.1.3.2 Proteins provide the amino acids required for the creation of all enzymes and some hormones.
2.1.3.2.1 Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and are used in growth and repair of the body's cells and tissues, including skeletal muscle.
2.1.3.3 Proteins provide the amino acids necessary for the manufacture of haemoglobin and myoglobin - essential for oxygen transport.
2.1.3.4 Proteins can provide energy for endurance-based activities.
2.1.4 Vitamins
2.1.4.1 Vitamins are chemical compounds that help convert food fuels into energy. Vitamins support our immune system and help the brain function properly.
2.1.4.2 Vitamins help to release energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
2.1.4.3 Vitamins promote a healthy immune system and thus enables performers to train to the best of their ability and to recover more quickly.
2.1.4.4 Vitamin supplementation should not really be necessary given the consumption of a healthy balanced diet.
2.1.5 Minerals
2.1.5.1 Minerals are vital for effective cell functioning and have a wide range of roles.
2.1.5.2 Calcium contributes to bone density.
2.1.5.3 Phosphorous is an essential component of our energy currency ATP.
2.1.5.4 Iron is a significant component of haemoglobin and myoglobin.
2.1.5.5 Sodium, Potassium and Chlorine form electrolytes which help in the exchange of nutrients and waste products.
2.1.6 Dietary Fibres
2.1.6.1 Fibre helps the digestive system to function properly by absorbing water and helping the passage of food through the gut.
2.1.7 Water
2.1.7.1 Water is crucial for effective sports performance as it is the main constituent of blood plasma and helps in the regulation of the body's temperature.
2.1.7.2 Dehydration of as little as 2% of a performer's body weight can impair performance by up to 10-20%.
2.1.7.3 The best rehydrater is water itself which is easily absorbed into the bloodstream.
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