DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY - Explanations of atttachment

Naomi Gbao
Mind Map by Naomi Gbao, updated more than 1 year ago
Naomi Gbao
Created by Naomi Gbao almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY - Explanations of atttachment, created by Naomi Gbao on 04/05/2015.

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DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY - Explanations of atttachment
1 Learning theory
1.1 Classical
1.1.1 UCS produces UCR (before conditioning
1.1.2 CS produces CR (after conditioning)
1.1.3 Food is UCS, produces pleasure (UCR). Feeder (NS) becomes associated with food (UCS) and pleasure (CR) is associated with feeder.
1.1.3.1 Association between individual and sense of pleasure is attachment bond
1.2 Operant
1.2.1 Reinforcement + Punishment
1.2.1.1 Dollard & Miller (1950)
1.2.1.1.1 Hungry infant has drive to reduce that discomfort. Infant is fed, producing pleasure (reward). Food becomes primary reinforce. Supplier of food becomes secondary reinforce.
1.2.1.1.1.1 Attachment occurs because child seeks person who can supply the reward.
1.3 Lacks validity - studies on animals - oversimplified.
1.3.1 However, behaviourists believe we are no different to animals.
1.4 Evaluation
1.4.1 Strengths
1.4.1.1 Provides an adequate explanation of how attachments form. We do learn through association and reinforcement but food may not be the main reinforcer.
1.4.2 Weaknessess
1.4.2.1 Contact comfort is more important than food.
1.4.2.1.1 Harlow's monkeys (1959).
1.4.2.1.1.1 2 wire mothers, 1 with feeding bottle and 1 covered in cloth.
1.4.2.1.1.2 Monkeys spent most time with cloth covered mother and would cling to it when frightened.
1.4.2.2 Human studies also challenge the importance of food for attachment
1.4.2.2.1 Schaffer and Emerson (1964).
1.4.2.2.1.1 60 babies from working-class homes in Glasgow.
1.4.2.2.1.2 Infants were most attached to the person who was most responsive + interactive, not the one who fed them.
2 Bowlby's theory (1969)
2.1 Children have innate drive to become attached to caregiver. Adaptive because they increase likelihood of survival.
2.2 Sensitive period
2.2.1 2nd quarter of the first year, as months pass it becomes increasingly difficult to form attachments.
2.3 Caregiving is adaptive
2.3.1 Social releasers e.g. smiling and crying elicit caregiving
2.4 A secure base
2.4.1 Attachment acts as a secure base from while child explores and safe haven to return to.
2.5 Monotropy and hierarchy
2.5.1 Primary attachment is monotropy.
2.5.2 Infants become most attached to person who person who responds most sensitively to infant's social releasers
2.5.3 The primary attachment figure provides the main foundation for emotional development, self esteem and later relationships.
2.6 Internal working model
2.6.1 Cluster of concepts about relationships and what to expect from others.
2.7 The continuity hypothesis
2.7.1 There is a link between early attachment behaviour and later emotional behaviour
2.8 Evaluation
2.8.1 Strengths
2.8.1.1 Research by Lorenz supports imprinting (goslings followed 1st moving object)
2.8.1.2 Sensitive period
2.8.1.2.1 Hodges and Tizard found that children who hadn't formed attachments later had difficulties with peers.
2.8.1.3 Universality
2.8.1.3.1 If attachment did evolve, then it would be found in all cultures.
2.8.1.3.2 Tronick et al. (1992) studied an African tribe which lived in extended family groups and found that the infants still showed 1 primary attachment at 6 months.
2.8.1.4 Monotropy and hierarchy
2.8.1.4.1 Supported by Tronick et al.
2.8.1.4.2 Schaffer and Emerson also found this. They also found little relationship between time spent and attachment - suggests quality is most important.
2.8.1.4.3 Fathers are important: When monkeys only stayed with their mothers, they were socially abnormal (Harlow).
2.8.1.5 Caregiver sensitivity
2.8.1.5.1 Schaffer & Emerson observed that strongly attached infants had mothers who responded quickly.
2.8.1.5.2 Harlow: wire mother left monkeys maladjusted.
2.8.1.5.3 Carlson (1998) found that insensitive caregiving was associated with disorganised attachment.
2.8.1.6 The continuity hypothesis
2.8.1.6.1 The Minnesota longitudinal study fond continuity between early attachment and later emotional / social behaviour.
2.8.2 Limitations
2.8.2.1 Multiple attachments
2.8.2.1.1 Grossmann & Grossmann (1991) did research on infant-father attachment and suggest that fathers have a key role in social development.
2.8.2.2 Alternative explanation - the temperament hypothesis
2.8.2.2.1 That certain personality / temperamental characteristics of the infant shape a mother's responsiveness.
2.8.2.2.2 Born with it
2.8.2.2.2.1 Thomas & Chess found: easy, difficult and easy to warm up.
2.8.2.2.2.2 Belsky & Rovinne support this hypothesis
2.8.2.2.2.2.1 Infants who were calmer and less anxious were more likely to be securely attached.
2.8.2.2.2.2.2 Nachmias et al. found no such association.
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