Diet

CarolineW
Mind Map by CarolineW, updated more than 1 year ago
CarolineW
Created by CarolineW about 5 years ago
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GCSE PE Mind Map on Diet, created by CarolineW on 04/07/2015.
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Diet
1 Food
1.1 Macronutrients
1.1.1 Protein
1.1.1.1 Aids repair, muscle growth, 15-20% of your diet.
1.1.2 Carbohydates
1.1.2.1 Main energy source to the body, simple & complex, 55-60% of your diet.
1.1.3 Fats
1.1.3.1 Weight gain, energy store reserve, 25-30% of your diet.
1.2 Micronutrients
1.2.1 Vitamins
1.2.1.1 Vitamin A: eyesight
1.2.1.2 Vitamin C: fight infection
1.2.1.3 Vitamin D: bone strength
1.2.2 Minerals
1.2.2.1 Calcium: bone strength
1.2.2.2 Iron: haemoglobin transportation
1.3 Timing
1.3.1 Undigested food remains in the gut ~ leading to nausea.
1.3.2 Digestive enzymes are diverted to the working muscles.
1.3.3 Energy is not absorbed so there is no energy for exercise.
1.3.3.1 Food should be eaten no less than two hours before exercise.
1.4 Cholesterol
1.4.1 HDL
1.4.1.1 Good unsaturated fats
1.4.1.2 Oily fish
1.4.2 LDL
1.4.2.1 Bad saturated fats
1.4.2.2 cheese, chips
1.5 Personal Health & Wellbeing
1.5.1 Fibre
1.5.1.1 Removes waste products.
1.5.2 Water
1.5.2.1 Helps hydration.
2 Body
2.1 Optimum Weight
2.1.1 Weight at which the performer can compete to their maximum potential.
2.1.2 Gender, muscle mass, bone structure & height all influence optimum weight.
2.1.3 Sporting Example: Jockeys will need to be much lighter for the horse to have as little load as possible.
2.1.4 Sporting Example: Sumo wrestlers may need to be heavier to destroy opponents.
2.2 Weight categories
2.2.1 Obesity
2.2.1.1 20% over standard weight to height ratio.
2.2.2 Under Weight
2.2.2.1 10% under standard weight to height ratio.
2.2.2.2 Side effects: fatigue, effectiveness (e.g. rugby), prone to infection.
2.2.3 Anorexia
2.2.3.1 Prolonged eating disorder.
2.2.3.2 Side effects: fatigue, prone to infection.
2.2.4 Over weight
2.2.4.1 Weight in excess of normal.
2.2.4.2 Side effects: fatigue, less agile, stress on joints, reduced oxygen supply.
2.2.5 Obesity Side Effects
2.2.5.1 Blocked arteries ~ high blood pressure.
2.2.5.2 High cholesterol.
2.2.5.3 Heart disease.
2.2.5.4 Joint problems.
2.2.5.5 Diabetes.
2.2.5.6 Flexibility.
2.3 Mental
2.3.1 Serotonin is a hormone released which, when released, reduces stress.
3 Carbo-Loading
3.1 Undertaken by marathon runners or endurance competitors.
3.1.1 1) 7 days beforehand, energy stores are depleted and training intensity peaks.
3.1.1.1 2) 4-6 days beforehand, low carb diet, high protein diet.
3.1.1.1.1 3) 1-3 days beforehand, carb rich diet.
3.1.1.1.1.1 4) Night beforehand, carb rich meal/pasta party
4 High Protein Diet
4.1 Commonly used by bodybuilders and weight lifters to build muscle mass.
4.1.1 Can be used for rehabilitation and repair.
4.1.2 Burns fat and increases muscle mass.
4.1.3 Small amounts of carbs, lots of water.
4.1.4 Can raise cholesterol levels with stroke chances increased also.
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