Edexcel Additional Science Chemistry Topics 1+2


mind map summarising key points from topics 1 and 2 of Edexcel's Additional Science- Chemistry. any comments how on i can make it more helpful will be welcomed :)
Mind Map by hchen8nrd, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by hchen8nrd over 9 years ago

Resource summary

Edexcel Additional Science Chemistry Topics 1+2
  1. The Atom
    1. Nucleus- in the centre; it contains protons and neutrons.
      1. Electrons- they move around the nucleus; they have a negative charge; they occupy shells / energy levels. The first energy levels holds 2, every other holds 8. A full shell equates to 8 electrons. (the second shell onwards)
      2. Atomic Number- tells you the number of protons which is equal to the number of electrons.
        1. Mass Number- the total number of protons and neutrons combined. Mass number- Atomic Number= no. of neutrons
          1. Proton
            1. 1
              1. +1
            2. Neutron
              1. 1
                1. 0
              2. Electron
                1. 1/2000
                  1. Relative Mass
                    1. -!
                      1. Relative Charge
            3. Isotopes
              1. isotopes- the different atoms of the same element which have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. (different mass numbers)
                1. e.g. isotopes include Carbon 12/14 and Chlorine 35/37
                  1. Relative Atomic Mass of Isotopes: (% of isotope 1 × mass of isotope 1) + (% of isotope 2 × mass of isotope 2) ÷ 100
                2. Organ- isation of The Periodic Table pt.1
                  1. 1800s- scientists didnt know about the structure of atoms, so ordered them in atomic mass
                3. Organisation of the Periodic Table pt.2
                  1. 1869- Dmitri Mendeleev ordered elements in groups, according to their properties. This left gaps; the gaps predicted new elements
                    1. Metals and non metals are on opposite sides of the table; metals -left, non metals- right
                      1. Periods- these run across the periodic table in rows; the elements are increasing in atomic number. the row number that the element is in corresponds to number of energy levels/ shells the element has. e.g. the elements in period 3 have 3 energy levels/shells.
                        1. Groups- these are columns that run down the periodic table; elements in these groups have similar properties because they have the same no. of electrons on their outer shell. the group no. equals the no. of electrons on their outer shell.
                    2. Ionic Bonding
                      1. in ionic bonding electrons are transferred to form positively or negatively charged atoms called ions, because of the attraction of opposite charges + and -, the ions are strongly attracted
                        1. A shell with 1/2/3 electrons will be looking forward to lose 1 or 2. or 3 this is because it's quicker than trying to gain 7 or 6.
                          1. A shell with 6,5 or 7 electrons will be looking to gain 1 or 2 electrons because it's quicker and easier than losing 5/6/7.
                            1. PROPERTIES
                              1. ionic bonds produce compounds with similar structures; the ions form a closely packed regular lattice arrangement
                                1. They have high melting points, due to the very strong bonds between the ions and electrostatic forces of attraction; it takes a lot of energy to break these bonds
                                  1. They conduct electricity when aqueous of molten. when dissolved the ions separate and are all free to move so they'll carry electric current..
                      2. Dot and Cross Diagrams
                        1. Dot and Cross diagrams show where electrons have moved during ionic bonding and the charges that elements have as a result.
                          1. if elements lose electrons they gain a positive charge, the number of electrons they lose will go after the charge sign. e.g calcium has 2 electrons on its last energy level, it ionically bonds and loses 2. so it has a charge of +2
                            1. if elements gains electrons they gain a negative charge, the number of electrons they gaim will go after the charge sign. e.g chlorine has 7 electrons on its last energy level, it ionically bonds and gains 1. so it has a charge of +1
                            2. Arrows show where the electron moves
                              1. the new electron configurations are drawn with their charges
                          2. Insoluble Salts
                            1. All nitrates are soluble
                              1. All chlorides are soluble expect silver and lead
                                1. All sulfates are soluble expect barium, calcium and lead
                                  1. All carbonates and hydroxides are INSOLUBLE except SODIUM, AMMONIUM and POTASSIUM
                            2. Precipitation Reactions
                              1. 1. add 1 spatula of compound to a test tube, fill with distilled water and shake thoroughly. do the same with the other compound
                                1. 2. tip the 2 solutions into a beaker and give it a stir to ensure it's all mixed together. the precipitate will appear as the 2 solutions react.
                                  1. 3. put a folded piece of filter paper into a filter funnel. put the funnel on a conical flask
                                    1. 4. pour the content of the beaker into the middle of the filter paper
                                      1. 5. swill out the beaker with more distilled water and tip it onto the paper
                                        1. 6. rinse the content of the filter paper with distilled water to make sure all of the soluble product from the reaction has washed away and all that remains is the precipitate
                                          1. 7.scrape of the precipitate and put it on fresh filter paper and leave to dry
                                2. how to get a pure dry precipiate
                                3. Barium Sulfate
                                  1. Barium sulfate is an insoluble salt used in x-rays.
                                    1. normally only bones show up on x-rays, BaSO4 is opaque so when drunk it shows up in the gut and any problems like blockages can be seen
                                      1. BaSO4 salts are toxic but can be safely drunk because they're insoluble; they wont pass into the bloodstream. it just passes through the body.
                                  2. FLAME TEST
                                    1. Sodium- Yellow/ Orange
                                      1. Potassium- Lilac
                                        1. Calcium- Red
                                          1. Copper- Blue/Green
                                      2. 1. dip a wire loop into HCL and rinse it off with water to ensure it is clean
                                        1. 2. dip the wire loop into the compound sample and put it into the blue flame of a bunsen burner
                                          1. this method can be used for both solution and solid forms of compounds. if doing solids, dip in HCL before to make sure the compound sticks.
                                      3. Testing for Ions
                                        1. Carbonates- add the suspected ions to dilute HCL. carbonates react with acid to make CO2. Pipe the gas created from the reaction into a test tube full of limewater. if carbonate ions are present it will go cloudy because of the CO2.
                                          1. Sulfates- to test for sulfate ions add dilute HCL followed by a barium chloride solution. if there are sulfate ions a white precipitate will appear: barium sulfate
                                            1. Chloride- to test for chloride ions add dilute nitric acid followed by a silver nitrate solution. if chloride ions are present, a white precipitate will form: silver chloride
                                        2. Spectro- scopy
                                          1. using light emitted by elements in a heated sample to identify elements
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