Geography Case studies - Human

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Case studies for the A Level Human side of Geography

Resource summary

Geography Case studies - Human
1 United Kingdom
1.1 Rebranding
1.1.1 CASE STUDY:- BLACKPOOL Developing business tourism Attracts a higher standard of further investment Widening the economic base of the town Investing large scale flagship attractions This can be advertised to the public - Pleasure Beach
1.1.2 A reason for rebranding is due to the cycle of urbanisation in MEDC cities 1. Urbanisation 2. Suburbanisation 3. Counter-urbanisation 4. Re-urbanisation CASE STUDY:- GLASGOW GORBALS There was economic and social decline occuring in the notorious housing estate of the Gorbals in Glasgow, Scotland COMPREHENSIVE REDEVELOPMENT (Slum clearance) Government legislation introduced the policy to tackle inner city problems - Involved removal of large areas of overcrowded tenemants Comprehensive redevelopment failed in the 1980s due to the 4 outer fringe settlements generating their own problems Tower blocks built quickly out of poor materails
1.2 Migration
1.2.1 High skilled workers from the common wealth mainly, migrate to the UK due to the demand for high skilled jobs such as nursing or vets
1.2.2 London is a global hub with valuable human and natural resources A global hub is a city which has major economic and political power i.e. London, New York, Tokyo
1.2.3 Better health care, hygiene, nutrition and education has led to migration from Europe
1.2.4 Eastern Europeans are migrating to the UK due to push and pull factors. Push factors are reasons why migrants leave their original country due to negative reasons such low standard of living and poor wages Pull factors attract migrants to a certain area such as better wages or better health care which is free (NHS)
1.2.5 2004 Post accession 8 European union migration
2 India
2.1 Industrialisation
2.1.1 To boost the balance of trade, thus improving the economy of countries such as India; strategies such as industrialising is used to bring about employment and higher exports
2.1.2 Agriculture is difficult in places due to climate
2.1.3 Brings about social advances aswell as large TNCs can offer higher wages due to economies of scale, meaning a higher standard of living for the workers
2.1.4 CASE STUDY:- COCA COLA RAJASTAN Factory does have enviromental limitations however as it uses half a billion litres of water every year Toxic chemicals have gone into water supplies increasing cost to people for health care and reducuing the standard of living Benefits include the employment with a wage of 1 euro 20 for an 8 hour shift Water in India is free so coco cola is drilling for water meaning that local farmers cannot irrigate their crops or provide enough water for their families
2.1.5 TNC stands for Trans-national corporations
2.2 Rapid Urban Growth
2.2.1 CASE STUDY:- MUMBAI Problems include enviromental pollution, socailly low standards of living and economically there is low economic output with high levels of piverty It is the centre fro business and economic output in India - Pull factors of employment in highly skilled sectors. 'Bright light affect' VISION MUMBAI DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS: It will create greater economic gains for the local economy. GDP locally will rise massively. Highly skilled workers will be attracted to the region. Large TNCs will also be attracted NEGATIVES: Many people will have to move to accomdate the plan with the construction of large sky scrapers an large scale housing. Will create socail stigma as many people will move from the slum Dharavi; meaning highly skilled workers may not want to move in
2.2.2 This is mainly used to LEDCs that are wanting to expand and grow quickly
2.2.3 Often involves high polluting industrial industries that massively boost exports, whilst they provide low wages and create a lower standard of living in the short term
3 South America
3.1 Global Political Groupings
3.1.1 CASE STUDY:- DEl MANTE BANANAS Banana plantations have enviromental and social problems Pain and suffering occured at plantations due to there being low wages and no regulation over the use of pesticides Once the windward Islands such as Guatemala joined the EU trade bloc this stopped the poor conidtions as there were no tariffs and taxes so they could pay higher wages and produce bananas without fertilzers Small scale farmers suffered as they couldn't prodcue bananas as cheap as the large TNCs
3.1.2 There are trade blocs that limit and promote trade. It is a voluntary organisation, bringing greater economic strength and security to nations that join
3.1.3 The EU is a trade bloc, meaning there is no tariffs or quotas on their exports or imports. However exporting from say Uganda, they would incur tariffs as they are not part of the EU trade bloc
3.1.4 There are organisations such as 'The world Trade Organisation (WTO) and NAFTA
4 Ireland
4.1 Globalisation
4.1.1 This gives a wider market and access to customers and influence
4.1.2 The process by which firms or other organisations develope international influence or start operating on an international scale
4.1.3 CASE STUDY:- Ireland The republic of Ireland gained its independence from the UK in 1922 Adopted a protectionist economic policy This promoted Irish firms to prosper without the competition from other Global TNCs Improved balance of payments Rapid growth in GDP and unemployment has decreased
5 Los Angeles
5.1 CASE STUDY:- Los Angeles
5.1.1 Home to 14 million people
5.1.2 Suburbanisation has lead to low density single family housing Large shopping centres, open spaces with land cheaper for properties
5.1.3 Population density of 3000 per km squared
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