Dating of Luke's Gospel

Mind Map by johnmccann543, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by johnmccann543 almost 6 years ago


A-Level Religion Mind Map on Dating of Luke's Gospel, created by johnmccann543 on 04/14/2015.

Resource summary

Dating of Luke's Gospel
1 An early date
1.1 +It is generally accepted that Luke was written before Acts and Acts must have been written by 63AD as it ends abruptly with Paul's imprisonment.
1.2 + Acts doesn't record the martyrdom of Paul in 64AD and Emperor Nero's persecution of Christians which suggests the two volumes were written before 64AD.
1.3 + Luke doesn't record the martyrdom of James, brother of Jesus in 62AD
1.4 + Luke's Gospel fails to mention the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70AD. The silence of Acts regarding this is significant in the light of Luke's emphasis on Jerusalem and of the fact that among the Gospels, Luke records the most specific prophecy of this event
1.5 + Acts focus on issues regarding Gentiles admittance into the Church and fellowship with Jewish Christians - Ecclesiology
1.6 + No mention of Nero's persecution in 64AD, yet mentions Roman indifference and ignorance to Christianity
1.7 - 'It is speculative to state what the author would or should have included in his record' - Barclay.
1.8 - Luke may have known about Paul's martyrdom in 64AD, but didn't refer to it because it wasn't his purpose to write a biography on Paul
1.9 - Many scholars believe it was reasonable for Luke to end his Gospel and Acts where he did, as this fits with the pattern of his whole work.
1.10 - Lack of reference to the fall of Jerusalem may be due to the fact that this event was of more interest to the Jews than the Gentiles.
1.11 - 'By 70AD Christianity had moved beyond its Palestinian origin to largely Gentile areas.' - Barclay
1.12 - One of the main sources for Luke's Gospel is Mark. This was written in 65-75AD and needed time to have circulated. Streeter proposed that Luke wrote a draft of his Gospel known as 'Proto-Luke' before Mark was written, and then later inserted sections of Mark into it to write his gospel.
1.13 - This theory is rejected on the grounds that when Markan material is removed, we are left with a shapeless mass of material.
2 An intermediate date
2.1 + Luke's knowledge of the Fall of Jerusalem in 70AD as a past event is apparent in comparison with Matthew and Mark.
2.2 + In Luke, there is a more specific reference to a military siege against the city, such as occurred in 70AD.
2.3 + Barclay draws attention to the fact that later in the same passage, only Luke reports Jesus Christ as saying that the city will be trampled on by the Gentiles and omits reference to the 'winter,; which may reflect his awareness that the siege of the city was during April-Sept.
2.4 + Luke was dependent on Mark's Gospel which is dated between 65-75AD. The circulation of Mark's Gospel and Luke's use of it would suggest a date in the 80's.
2.5 + In his prologue, Luke acknowledges his dependence on others who wrote accounts of Christ before him. This suggests he used the disciples and Mark's Gospel.
2.6 + Paul is portrayed in Acts as an heroic figure in the early church. Such a portrayal of a controversial figure would have taken time to develop.
2.7 + Luke's theology shows signs of lateness and development, particularly in relation to eschatology and ecclesiology. Therefore, the emphasis on the immenint return of Jesus Christ had already been replaced by a 'Salvation History.'
2.8 - Although Luke seems to have had knowledge of the fall of Jerusalem, there is no direct reference to it in Acts.
2.9 - Dodd and Stuhlmeller argue that Luke's knowledge of Jerusalem's destruction was composed entirely from the language of the Old Testament.
2.10 It is merely speculative as to how much time needed to elapse for Luke to have made use of Mark's Gospel and for Paul's influence to have grown
3 A late date
3.1 +It is suggested that John used Luke's Gospel and John's Gospel is dated 90-100AD, so Luke had to have written his Gospel before this date. Some scholars believe that Luke made use of a book, 'The Antiquities of the Jews,' written by Josephus in 94AD.
3.2 + In Luke 3:1-2, he refers to Lysanias who was put to death in 34BC and mentions Theudas and the sons of Judas of Galilee who led uprisings; this suggests dependency of Josephus
3.3 Streeter suggests that Luke had heard Josephus lecture in Rome before the publication of his book and remembered the names from the lecture.
3.4 + The Gospel of Marcion was a text used by the mid-second century Christian teacher Marcion to the exclusion of other gospels. Some scholars suggest that he used Proto-Luke which was a draft of Luke's Gospel.
3.5 + Charles B. Waite was one of the first to propose that Marcion's Gospel may have preceded Luke's Gospel. Knox also defends this hypothesis. Some recent scholars have agreed with this teaching.
3.6 - Early Church Fathers wrote and the majority of modern scholars agree, that Marcion edited Luke to fit in his own theology, Marcionism. This view is consistent with the way he altered other books in his canon. It is also likely because Luke's Gospel was believed to be complete by Marcion's time.
3.7 - There is a difference between Luke's information on Paul and what Paul has written about himself in his own letters, indicating that a second-century date is improbable as Luke is unaware of Paul's letters.
3.8 - Bishop of Ignatius of Antioch includes phases in his letters dated between 97-177AD which suggests Luke-Acts was known to him.
3.9 - Luke's portrayal of churches such as Ephesus seems to reflect a time of writing before or during the reign of Emperor Domitian in 81-96AD.
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