F324 All Reactions

mayy
Mind Map by mayy, updated more than 1 year ago
mayy
Created by mayy about 5 years ago
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Inorganic Chemistry F325 (Module.3 Transition Elements) Mind Map on F324 All Reactions, created by mayy on 04/19/2015.

Resource summary

F324 All Reactions
1 Alkanes
1.1 Combustion
1.1.1 Incomplete
1.1.1.1 Forms CO/C + H2O
1.1.1.1.1 Carbon monoxide binds to haemoglobin irreversably so can be toxic
1.1.2 Complete
1.1.2.1 Forms CO2 + H2O
1.1.3 As size of molecules increase the more Van Der Waals Forces there are so they don't vaporise as easily and so are harder to ignite
1.2 Halogenation
1.2.1 R-CH3 + Cl2 --> R-CH2Cl + HCl
1.3 Cracking
1.3.1 Hydrocarbons are split in to smaller more useful molecules
2 Alkenes
2.1 Hydrogenation
2.1.1 Alkene + H2 --> Alkane
2.1.1.1 100% Atom Economy
2.1.2 Nickel Catalyst at 150˚c
2.2 Halogenation (Electrophilic Addition)
2.2.1 Alkene + Halogen --> Halogenoalkane
2.3 with Hydrogen Halides
2.3.1 Reaction Rates
2.3.1.1 HI HBr HCl HF
2.3.1.1.1
3 Halogenoalkanes
3.1 Nucleophili c Substitution
3.2 Elimination
3.3 with Ammonia
4 Alcohols
4.1 Oxidation
4.1.1 Primary
4.1.1.1 Forms Aldehyde
4.1.1.1.1 CH3CH2OH + [O] --> CH3CHO + H2O
4.1.1.1.2 Further Oxidation forms a Carboxylic acud
4.1.1.1.2.1 CH3CHO + [O] --> CH3COOH
4.1.2 Tertiary
4.1.2.1 Do not oxidise as no Hydrogen atoms on the carbon to set up the C=O bond
4.1.3 Secondary
4.1.3.1 Forms a Ketone
4.1.3.1.1 CH3CHOHCH3 + [O] --> CH3C=OCH3 + H2O
4.1.4 Reducing Agent: K2Cr2O7
4.1.4.1 Cr₂O₇²- + 14H⁺ + 6e⁻ --> 2Cr³⁺ + 7H₂o
4.1.4.2 Primary: Green Secondary : Green Tertiary : Orange
4.2 Dehydration
4.2.1 CH3CH2OH --> H2C=CH2 + H2O
4.2.2 Reagants and COnditions: Heated with excess conc H3PO4 at 170℃
4.3 with Sodium
4.3.1 CH₃CH₂OH + 2Na --> 2CH₃CH₂O⁻Na⁺ + H₂
4.4 With Hydrogen Halides
4.4.1 R-OH + HX --> R-X + H2O
5 Acid Anhydrides
6 Esters
6.1 Hydrolysis
6.1.1 Acid
6.1.1.1 Ester + H⁺ --> Carboxylic acid + Alcohol
6.1.1.2 Reagants and COnditions: Dilute HCL heated under reflux
6.1.2 Alkali
6.1.2.1 Ester + OH⁻ --> Carboxylate salt + Alcohol
6.1.2.2 Reagants and Conditions: Dilute NaOH heated under reflux
6.1.3 Polyesters
6.1.3.1
7 Aldehydes
8 Ketones
9 Carboxylic Acids
10 Amines
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