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Rates of Reaction:
Summary of rates of reaction
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Rates of Reaction:
Amount of product made or the amount of reactant used up per unit time
Changing the rate of reaction
Heating reactants means particles move fas
Increasing frequency of collisions, more successful collisions (reactions happen) rate of reaction increases.
The higher the concentration, the more particles so more frequent collisions, resulting in a higher the rate of the chemical reaction.
The smaller the particle size, the larger the surface area, and the higher the rate of reaction.
Catalysts can speed up the rate of reaction without being used up themselves. However they are specific (only speed up) a certain reaction.
Industrial processes that use a catalyst
Cracking long hydrocarbon chains: use porcelain chips or aluminium oxide as the catalyst
Hydrogenation of unsaturated plaint oils (making margarine): use nickel as the catalyst
Catalytic converter in cars: use platinum and other metals as the catalyst
Exothermic reactions give out energy, mainly in the form of heat, to the surroundings.
Examples of exothermic reactions
Neutralisation reactions, Displacement reactions, Combustion (burning) reactions
For a reaction to occur, particles need to collide with the particles from the other reactants in the right orientation and with enough energy to overcome the activation energy.
Increasing the rate of reaction means there are more frequent collisions. Increasing temperature also means there are more successful collisions.
Increasing the rate of reaction
Stir it, increase temperature of liquid, smaller solid pieces (even powdered) as it creates a larger surface area , use a catalysts ,Increase concentration of liquid
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