Software and networking

jpalfrey511
Mind Map by jpalfrey511, updated more than 1 year ago
jpalfrey511
Created by jpalfrey511 over 5 years ago
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Software and networking mind map

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Software and networking
1 Operating systems
1.1 Provides a user interface
1.2 Computers are useless without an operating system
1.3 Manages the computers hardware
1.3.1 Every piece of hardware has a device driver which enables the software to communicate with the hardware.
1.4 Manages the computers memory
1.4.1 When you close a program the operating system removes it from its memory to free space
1.5 A Graphical User Interface (GUI) provides the functionality that enables you to create and manage the windows on your screen and also provides features such as icons on your desktop, buttons and scrollbars
1.6 Other features: handling files, security such as handling user names and passwords, allocating resources on networks such as disk space, scheduling the CPU processing cycles, moving data to and from the hard disk and provides servces such as print spooling.
1.7 Test
1.7.1 1. Explain what the operating system is used for The operating system is used to provide a user interface between the end user and the device
1.7.2 2. Explain what is meant by user interface A user interface enables the end user to communicate with the device by providing an input/output source
1.7.3 3. Explain what is meant by memory management Memory management is the act of keeping your memory organized and making sure that there is free space when you need it
1.7.4 4. Explain what is meant by multi tasking Multi tasking is when the end user is doing two or more tasks at once/ running two programs at once
1.7.5 5. Explain how an operating system uses security An operating system uses security such as using user names and passwords to authenticate a user's identity to make sure that the user is authorised to make changes to the system.
2 Utility programs
2.1 Security
2.1.1 An Anti-Virus quarantines a detected virus to protect important system files. It also periodically checks the computer for viruses by checking it against a database. Anti-viruses are needed because they quarantine viruses to prevent them from spreading and infecting other files
2.1.2 Spyware protection works by warning the user that there is spyware on their computer and gives the user a choice to quarantine the virus or remove files that are a threat. Another method is using the spyware protection software to scan the hard disk for known spyware that has been recorded in a database. This is needed to prevent software that allows a user to gather information about another computer by transmitting data from their hard drive.
2.1.3 Firewalls work by checking the sent and received data packets between two users for viruses and confirm with the user if the data packet should be blocked. They also work by informing the user if they want the file sent to access other files in your computer. This is needed to protect your computer so that viruses cannot find an open port on your computer.
2.2 Disk organisation
2.2.1 Disk formatting works by preparing a data storage device for initial use, essentially removing all data from the disk. The formatting operation may also create one or more new file systems. Disk formatting is needed because if your computer develops a serious problem then disk formatting is an easy way to solve it and start over.
2.2.2 File transferring works by transferring computer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet. It is also used to double-check by if the information provided by the client is accepted by the server. File transferring is needed because it enables file sharing between two computers. For example, without file transferring we would not be able to play online games with other people because the files holding data about each computers game is not being shared.
2.2.3 Disk defragmentation works by rearranging files on a storage device to make finding data a lot easier for the computer which makes to opening a file quicker and more efficient . It also reunites the fragmented files to ensure that the data needed to open a file is in the same place. This is needed to make your computer more efficient and also to speed it up because if your computer becomes fragmented it means it would keep having to go to different areas to find the data required to open a file.
2.3 System maintenance
2.3.1 System information works by keeping a record on the operating system of all of the hardware and details about the operating system. This is useful when someone wants to know details about their computer. For example, if someone was upgrading a component of their computer they would want to know if it is compatible with the rest of the components. Diagnosis is used to test if the system is fully working and everything is working properly. System information and diagnosis are needed to check information about the components of the computer and what each components status is.
2.3.2 System clean-up tools work by checking the computer for unnecessary files that can be slowing the computer down or are no longer needed. This tool also helps to clear storage space on the computer by removing files that are no longer needed. This is needed to clear storage space that is wasted on irrelevant files such as dead shortcuts.
2.3.3 •Automatic updating works by automatically searching the Internet for updated versions of software such as the operating system or a web browser and installing the latest version. •It also works to prevent the latest viruses from infecting your computer by downloading the latest patch to make sure your computer is protected. Automatic updating is used to ensure that your computer is up to date with updates and patches to prevent viruses.
3 Software types
3.1 'Off the shelf' software
3.1.1 Advantages: instantly available, cheap, regular updates, community support online and the software is heaviy tested for bugs
3.1.2 Disadvantages: may not have all of the software you need and may have features that aren't needed.
3.1.3 Off the shelf software is ready made software available to everyone to use.
3.2 Open source software
3.2.1 Advantages: improvements can be made to programs by other users that have studies the source code, generally free to buy, more secure as many will have tested it, can modify software to fit your needs, can get help from forums and more customizable as multiple people can edit the source code.
3.2.2 Disadvantages: can be less user friendly, malicious users can potentially view bugs and exploit any vulnerabilities, less support and relys on the user to find bugs.
3.2.3 Software which allows users to view and modify the source code.
3.3 Proprietary software
3.3.1 Advantages: Free from bugs and viruses, easy to install, regular updates, has a user friendly support network.
3.3.2 Disadvantages: improvements may cost money, can't edit the software without permission and you can't share the software
3.3.3 Software which cannot be copied or altered without permission of the owner.
3.4 Custom written software
3.4.1 Custom written software is tailored to a specific user.
3.4.2 Advantages: tailored to you, doesn't have features which are not needed, support with developer, 1 to 1 training, no redundant features.
3.4.3 Disadvantages: very expensive and takes a long time to be made - lead time.
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