Scientific inquiry comes down to making observations and interpreting what you have observed. Before observe you need a plan to determine: what you are going to observe? and analyze: Why? and How?
1 Major task
1.1 1. What it is you want to find out
1.2 2. The best way to do it
2.1.1 Much of SR is conducted by.
184.108.40.206 Because: It's a way to start to familiarize with a topic. For
relatively new subject. For persistent phenomena
2.1.2 Is pursued by: Focus group or guided
220.127.116.11 1- Satisfy a better understanding.
18.104.22.168 2- Feasibility of undertaking a more extensive
22.214.171.124 3- To develop the methods to be
employed in any subsequent study
2.1.4 Disadvantages: Seldom provide
satisfactory answers to research
questions because of the
representativeness is not quit good.
2.1.5 Is the attempt to develop an initial,
rough understanding of some
2.2.1 is the precise measurement and
reporting of the characteristics of
some population or phenomenon
under study (WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, HOW)
126.96.36.199 Carefully chronicles events
2.2.3 Characteristic: Such studies are seldom limited to a merely
descriptive purpose, researchers go on to why the observed
patterns exist and what they imply
2.3.1 Is the discovery and reporting of relationships among
different aspects of the phenomenon under study.
Descriptive studies answer the question "What's so?";
explanatory tend to answer "Why"
2.3.2 Idiographic explanation
188.8.131.52 Understanding of the causes producing events and
situations in a single or limited number of cases
184.108.40.206.1 Pay attentions to the explanation
offered by the people living the social
processes you are studying
220.127.116.11.2 Comparisons with similar situations,either in
different places or at different times in the same
place, can be insightful
2.3.3 The logic of nomothetic
18.104.22.168 Criteria for causal
relantionships in SR
22.214.171.124.1 The variables most be correlated
126.96.36.199.1.1 Unless some actual relationship-a
statistical correlation-is found between
two variables, we can not say that a
causal relationship existi
188.8.131.52.2 The cause takes place before the effect (Time order)
184.108.40.206.3 The variables are nonspurious
220.127.116.11.3.1 It's mean that a variables is NOT the
cause of the other. There is not a 3
variable that can explain away the
observed correlation as spurious
18.104.22.168.4 False criteria for Nomothetic causality
22.214.171.124.4.1 Complete causation
126.96.36.199.4.2 Exceptional cases
188.8.131.52.4.3 Majority of cases
3 How to Design a Research project?
Research design review:
The research design is the process of focusing your perspective for the purpose of a particular study. In designing a research project first assess three things: your interest, your abilities, the available resources.
Spend some time thinking about the kinds of questions that interest and concern you.
Think about the info. needed to answer them. What research units of analysis would provide the most relevant info .
Then ask which aspects of the units of analysis would provide the info you need in order to answer your research question.
How you might go about getting that info.
Keep in mind research abilities and resources available to you.
Then make a review previous research in journals and books to see how other researchers have addressed the topic and what they have learn. Your review of the literature may lead you to revise your research design.
A valuable research strategy is: Triangulation.
In the best of all words, your own research design should bring MORE THAN one research METHOD to bear on the topic.
3.1 Purpose: Interest, Idea, Theory (I-I-T)
3.1.1 What kind of study: exploratory, descriptive, explanatory?
Description of the kind of outcomes you want to achieve
Specify what do you mean about your idea or topic.
Specify exact meanings for all concepts you plan to study.
184.108.40.206.1 Choice of research method
The best study design uses more than one research method, taking advantages of their different strengths.
220.127.116.11.1.2 Survey research
18.104.22.168.1.3 Content analysis
In research design, especially in psychology, social sciences, life sciences, and physics,operationalization is a process of definingthe measurement of a phenomenon that is not directly measurable, though its existence is indicated by other phenomena.
22.214.171.124.1.4.1 Meaning of variables in a study:
deciding measurement techniques.
How will we actually measure the
variables under study
126.96.36.199.1.4.2 Population and Sampling
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Whom do we want to be able to draw
conclusion about? who will be
observed for that purpose?
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Observations: Collect empirical data
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1 Data processing
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1 Transforming the data collected into
a form appropiate to manipulation
and analysis. Depended on the
research method chosen.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Involves the uses and conclusion you
have reached. What you have learned.
What your work suggest in regard to
further research on your subject. What
mistakes should be corrected. What
should be pursued further.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.2.2 It is about to interpret the collected data for
the purpose of drawing conclusions that reflect
initiated the inquiry. The result of your
analyses FEED BACK into your initial: I-I-T
184.108.40.206.1.5 Field research
220.127.116.11.1.6 Existing data research
18.104.22.168.1.7 Comparative research
22.214.171.124.1.8 Evaluation research
126.96.36.199.2 Specify the meaning
of the concepts and
variables to be
4 The research Proposal
4.1 It;s about to lay out
the details of your
plan for someone
else's review or
4.2.1 Problem or objective:
188.8.131.52 Literature review
You should write it with an eye toward introducing the reader to the topic you will address, laying out in a logical manner what has already been learned on the topic by past, then leading up the holes or loose ends in our knowledge of the topic, which you propose to remedy. Or may point to inconsistencies or disagreements among existing finding, in that case will aim to resolve the ambiguities that plagues us.
184.108.40.206.1 Subjects for study
220.127.116.11.1.1.1 Data collection methods
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1.1 Institutional Review Board
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1.2 Where the
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2 Description? why
things are the way
they are? To account
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 How will you collect the
data for your study?
126.96.36.199.1.1.2 What are the key variable?
188.8.131.52.1.2 Whom or what will you study in
order to collect data? sample? how?
qualitative or quantitative study.
184.108.40.206 What do you want to study?
Why is it worth?
5 Units of analysis: what or whom
can be studied
5.4 Social Interactions:
Kisses, dancing, e-mails
5.5 Social Artifacts: books, poem
6 Options for dealing
with the issue of
6.1 Cross-Sectional Studies
220.127.116.11 Observations of a sample, or cross
section, of a population or phenomenon
that are made at one point in time
6.1.2 Example: Exploratory and
6.1.3 Problem: Their conclusions are based on
observations made at only one time,
typically they aim at understanding
causal processes that occur over time.
6.2 Longitudinal Studies (LE)
18.104.22.168 Observations of the same
phenomenon over an extended
6.2.2 Types of LS
22.214.171.124.1 Examines CHANGES within a
populations over time
126.96.36.199.1 Examines SPECIFIC subpopulations
188.8.131.52.1 Similar to trend and cohort, but, data are
collected from the same set of people
(Sample or PANEL) at several points in