Global Ecosystems Amazon

Stephen Booth
Mind Map by Stephen Booth, updated more than 1 year ago
Stephen Booth
Created by Stephen Booth almost 5 years ago
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Alevel Mind Map on Global Ecosystems Amazon, created by Stephen Booth on 04/26/2015.
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Global Ecosystems Amazon
1 The Amazon Rainforest is under threat
1.1 Worlds largest tropical rainforest
1.2 One of the most biodiverse regions on Earth
1.2.1 1 million plant species
1.2.2 500 species of mammals
1.2.3 2000 species of fish
1.3 Home to many endangered species
1.3.1 Amazonian Manatee (aquatic mammal)
1.3.2 Black Caiman (reptile)
1.3.3 Pirarcu (fish)
1.4 Deforestation
1.4.1 Single biggest threat to the rainforest, 13% of the original forest has been cleared
1.4.2 Mining, logging and subsistence agriculture all contribute to the deforestation
1.4.3 Cattle ranching is the biggest problem with it being responsible for 60% of deforestation was due to it from 2000 to 2005
1.4.4 Impacts include forest fires and soil erosion as well as decreased biodiversity
1.5 Overhunting and overfishing
1.5.1 Most local people still live a traditional lifestyle based on hunting, fishing, foraging and small scale farming for food.
1.5.2 Population growth in recent years has caused an increase in subsistence hunting and fishing
1.5.3 Hunting primates for bushmeat is a big problem with between 2.2 to 5.4 million primates per year consumed
1.5.4 This is unsustainable because primates reproduce slowly and many species are endangered
1.5.5 Loss of certain species can have a knock on effect on other species
2 The Central Amazon Conservation Complex (CACC)
2.1 The CACC was established in 2003 by merging four reserves together in the Brazilian Amazon
2.1.1 Jau National Park
2.1.2 Anavilhanas Ecological Station
2.1.3 Mamiraua Reserve
2.1.4 Amana Reserve
2.2 It aims to protect biodiversity of this area of the rainforest
2.2.1 Protecting endangered species
2.2.2 Maintain various ecosystems
2.2.3 While allowing local people to continue to use the forest in a sustainable way
2.3 Covers an area of 49000km which includes various habitats
2.3.1 Within the Brazilian Amazon
2.3.2 Dry (unflooded) rainforest
2.3.3 Rivers
2.3.4 Lakes
2.3.5 Dry grasslands
2.3.6 Seasonally flooded rainforest
2.4 The complex is managed by several organisations
2.4.1 Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Natural Resources (IBAMA)
2.4.2 Local government
2.4.3 Research Institutes
2.4.4 Representatives from mining and tourist industry
2.5 Management approaches use a number of schemes to try balance conservation with sustainable development
2.5.1 The complex is divided into zones, total protection, buffer zones, sustainable use, rehabilitation and experimental use
2.5.1.1 In areas of sustainable use, there are quotas on logging, hunting and fishing
2.5.2 In areas of total protection, access is heavily restricted. For example only researchers are allowed in Jau National Park
2.5.3 Two Sustainable Development Reserves (SDRs) have been created where hunting and logging is only allowed for subsistence as well as limits to the numbers of animals and fish that can be caught
2.5.4 Education projects have been set up to educate locals about the environment and how to manage it
2.5.4.1 Projects have been set up to increase community involvement with conservation. In Mamiraua 60 communities take part in monitoring wildlife. Local representatives meet every two months with local government and NGOs to discuss management
2.5.5 Economic Alternative Programs have been set up. These are sustainable schemes run by local people who receive a direct income from their work
2.5.5.1 Fisheries management
2.5.5.2 Ecotourism
2.5.5.3 Sustainable agriculture
2.5.5.4 Handcraft production
3 Sustainable Development Initiatives have been sucessful
3.1 The creation of the conservation complex has protected the area from major developments such as pipes, dams, mines or commercial logging activities
3.2 The SDRs have improved biodiversity. Populations of many species have increased
3.2.1 The Black Caiman population have increased by 100% and Pirarucu fish population have increased by 300%
3.3 Ecotourism provides a source of income for locals and promotes conservation
3.3.1 In Maniraua a low impact environment lodge has been built, this brings money and jobs to the area
3.4 Local education and health improvement projects have been successful
3.4.1 80 teachers from local school have been training 1800 children the importance of the environment
3.5 Economic Alternatives Programs promote sustainable activities which has reduced poverty with average household income has increased by 50-99% in some areas. Local farmers and craftsmen belong to producers association to cut out the middle men in selling
4 Protecting such a Large Area is Difficult
4.1 The reserves are large and understaffed which makes it difficult to monitor and control illegal activities
4.1.1 150 peopled are employed to Amana and Mamiraua reserves and there are 100 volunteer guards but more are needed to cover the large area effectively
4.2 Restricting access to total protection sites is very hard due to the size of these zones and the limited number of staff
4.2.1 Jau National Park has only 4 permanent staff which leads to a problem of poaching turtles, however 26 volunteer guards are been trained to help the situation
4.3 Population growth in areas puts stress on the ecosystem, and some still suffer from intensive fishing and hunting especially of monkeys and manatees
4.4 Population growth occurs across the region means deforestation around the edges of the CACC continues. Deforestation results in habitat loss and fragmentation meaning animals are unable to move between them. As well as making it easier for hunters to access the area.
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