Biology-B1

Manar Abdalla
Mind Map by Manar Abdalla, updated more than 1 year ago
Manar Abdalla
Created by Manar Abdalla about 5 years ago
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quick revision notes covering b1
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Biology-B1
1 Variation
1.1 indiviuals of the same species
1.2 can be caused by...
1.2.1 genetic factors, e.g. dimples, eye colour
1.2.2 environmental factors,e.g. scars, hair style
2 Genetic Information
2.1 DNA
2.1.1 genes
2.1.1.1 located in the NUCLEUS of every cell
2.1.1.2 occur in long strips called CHROMOSOMES
2.1.1.3 control the development of different characteristics with instructions to the cells
2.1.1.4 alleles
2.1.1.4.1 dominant
2.1.1.4.1.1 controls the development of a characteristic even if its present on only one chromosome in a pair
2.1.1.4.2 recessive
2.1.1.4.2.1 controls the development of a characteristic only if the dominant allele is not present
2.1.1.4.3 homozygous: inherit two which are the same
2.1.1.4.4 heterozygous: inherit two which are different
2.1.2 instructions for...
2.1.2.1 how the organism should be constructed
2.1.2.2 how each cell should function
2.2 Chromosomes
2.2.1 made of DNA molecules
2.2.1.1 double helix
2.2.2 come in pairs
2.2.2.1 both cromosomes in the pair have the same sequence of genes,
2.2.2.1.1 same genes in the same place
2.2.2.2 Humans have 23 pairs, 46 chromosomes in total
2.2.3 sex cells contain single chromosomes
2.3 protein
2.3.1 structural
2.3.1.1 for cell growth of repair
2.3.2 functional
2.3.2.1 enzymes to speed up chemical reactions
3 GENETIC DISORDERS
3.1 HUNTINGTON'S
3.1.1 one faulty allele, on the fourth pair of chromosomes
3.1.2 affects the central nevous system
3.1.3 damages brain cells
3.1.4 gradual changes=symptoms
3.1.4.1 involuntary movement
3.1.4.2 clumsiness
3.1.4.3 memory loss
3.1.4.4 mood changes
3.1.4.5 inability to concentrate
3.1.5 develop in adulthood
3.1.5.1 means sufferers have already passed it onto their offspring
3.1.6 incurable=premature death
3.1.7 only one parent needs to pass on the gene fora child to inherit it
3.1.8 allele is dominant
3.2 CYSTIC FIBROSIS
3.2.1 causes the build up of thick sticky mucus
3.2.1.1 lungs,hut and pancreas
3.2.2 symptoms
3.2.2.1 weight loss
3.2.2.2 difficulty in breating
3.2.2.3 chest infections
3.2.2.4 difficulty in digesting food
3.2.3 if a person has one of the alleles, doesn't have any symptoms=carrier
3.2.3.1 they can pass on the allele to offspring
3.2.3.2 an example of this=SICKLE CELL
4 GENETIC TESTING
4.1 testing for a faulty allele
4.2 implications
4.3 testing individuals for...
4.3.1 suspectability to certain diseases or conditions
4.3.2 possible problems with certain prescribed drugs /treatments
5 stem cells
5.1 develop into specialised cells neede in an organism
5.2 adult
5.2.1 taken from areas which are adapted for replacement /repair of tissues
5.2.1.1 umbilical cord and bone marrow
5.2.2 can develop into a range of specialised cells but not all types
5.3 embryonic
5.3.1 taken from a developing embryo, to make into necessary clone embryos
5.3.2 develop into any kind of specialised cell
5.4 used to replace damaged tissue, patients with parkinsons disease
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