Natural Gas

Jacky Kim
Mind Map by Jacky Kim, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Jacky Kim
Created by Jacky Kim over 4 years ago


Natural gas

Resource summary

Natural Gas
1 General Info
1.1 Deal with NG Associated with Oil
1.1.1 flaring
1.1.2 injected into reservoir to maintain pressure
1.2 First found 19th century associated with oil production
1.3 Composition
1.3.1 Sat, Aliphatic hydrocarbons straight chain greatest proportion methane > 50% Melting point – 182.5 °C Boiling point – 161.6 °C ΔHc° = - 882.0 kJ/mol Colourless Alkanes with up to C6 branched alkanes
1.3.2 Unwanted Gases CO2/H2S/N2/Hg H2O+Salt Mercaptans CH3SH detect leaks to distinct smell
1.4 Type
1.4.1 Wet < 85% C1
1.4.2 Dry almost C1 Natural or purified
2 Liquid Natural Gas for easy Transportation
2.1 Reduce V to 600 fold @ -162 oC
2.1.1 Aluminium container and Hg Below level of detection and No water
3 Used for
3.1 Domestic – Heating and Cooking
3.2 Commercial – Heating, transport fuel, etc.
3.3 Electric Generation
3.4 Industrial
3.4.1 Critical Industrial Reactions Steam Reforming CH4 + H2O ==>CO + 3H2 – syn gas Highly endothermic 900 °C @at high pressure Tubes are heated in a furnace Water – gas shift thermodynamically favoured by low temperatures CO + H2O ==>CO2 + H2 ُُEquilibrium reaction Industrially High Temperature Shift iron oxide catalyst Low Temperature Shift CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 Fischer – Tropsch 2n H2 + CO ==> -(CH2)n- + H2O Steam Reformation products enter the reactor catalyst Iron or Cobalt Products Olefins / Alkenes Paraffins / Alkanes Oxygenates Aromatics Methanol synthesis Ammonia synthesis N2 + 3H2 ==>2NH3 Fe catalyst reaction is exothermic favoured by low temperatures high pressures A substance that promotes the rate of reaction by providing an alternative reaction pathway, and is regenearated at the end Homogeneous Catalysts Same as the reactants gas or liquid Not common/Hard to separate Examples are use of KOH Heterogeneous Catalysis different phase as the reactants solid Common, as separation is easy
4 Combustion of Natural Gas produce CO2 and water
4.1 Advantages of Burning Natural Gas
4.1.1 Fewer emissions
4.1.2 Reduced sludge from scrubbing SO2
4.2 Gas Burn is determined by
4.2.1 CV , measure of heat released when it is burnt. Measured normally in Btu’s Wobbe Number =(Calorific Value)/√(Specific Gravity) same wobbe number ==> same amount of heat
4.2.2 SG, much gas will pass through the orifice of a burner in a set time at a given pressure
4.2.3 Burning Velocity Measures the speed at which a flame is propagated in a gas
4.3 Burning Gas problem
4.3.1 Light Back
4.3.2 unstable flame
4.3.3 low flame speed gas
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