Natural Gas

Jacky Kim
Mind Map by Jacky Kim, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Jacky Kim
Created by Jacky Kim over 4 years ago
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Natural gas
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Natural Gas
1 General Info
1.1 Deal with NG Associated with Oil
1.1.1 flaring
1.1.2 injected into reservoir to maintain pressure
1.2 First found 19th century associated with oil production
1.3 Composition
1.3.1 Sat, Aliphatic hydrocarbons
1.3.1.1 straight chain
1.3.1.1.1 greatest proportion methane > 50%
1.3.1.1.1.1 Melting point – 182.5 °C
1.3.1.1.1.2 Boiling point – 161.6 °C
1.3.1.1.1.3 ΔHc° = - 882.0 kJ/mol
1.3.1.1.1.4 Colourless
1.3.1.1.2 Alkanes with up to C6
1.3.1.2 branched alkanes
1.3.2 Unwanted
1.3.2.1 Gases CO2/H2S/N2/Hg
1.3.2.2 H2O+Salt
1.3.2.3 Mercaptans CH3SH
1.3.2.3.1 detect leaks to distinct smell
1.4 Type
1.4.1 Wet < 85% C1
1.4.2 Dry almost C1 Natural or purified
2 Liquid Natural Gas for easy Transportation
2.1 Reduce V to 600 fold @ -162 oC
2.1.1 Aluminium container and Hg Below level of detection and No water
3 Used for
3.1 Domestic – Heating and Cooking
3.2 Commercial – Heating, transport fuel, etc.
3.3 Electric Generation
3.4 Industrial
3.4.1 Critical Industrial Reactions
3.4.1.1 Steam Reforming
3.4.1.1.1 CH4 + H2O ==>CO + 3H2 – syn gas
3.4.1.1.2 Highly endothermic 900 °C @at high pressure
3.4.1.1.3 Tubes are heated in a furnace
3.4.1.2 Water – gas shift
3.4.1.2.1 thermodynamically favoured by low temperatures
3.4.1.2.1.1 CO + H2O ==>CO2 + H2
3.4.1.2.2 ُُEquilibrium reaction
3.4.1.2.3 Industrially
3.4.1.2.3.1 High Temperature Shift
3.4.1.2.3.1.1 iron oxide catalyst
3.4.1.2.3.2 Low Temperature Shift
3.4.1.2.3.2.1 CuO/ZnO/Al2O3
3.4.1.3 Fischer – Tropsch
3.4.1.3.1 2n H2 + CO ==> -(CH2)n- + H2O
3.4.1.3.1.1 Steam Reformation products enter the reactor
3.4.1.3.1.2 catalyst Iron or Cobalt
3.4.1.3.1.3 Products
3.4.1.3.1.3.1 Olefins / Alkenes
3.4.1.3.1.3.2 Paraffins / Alkanes
3.4.1.3.1.3.3 Oxygenates
3.4.1.3.1.3.4 Aromatics
3.4.1.4 Methanol synthesis
3.4.1.5 Ammonia synthesis
3.4.1.5.1 N2 + 3H2 ==>2NH3
3.4.1.5.1.1 Fe catalyst
3.4.1.5.1.2 reaction is exothermic
3.4.1.5.1.2.1 favoured by low temperatures
3.4.1.5.1.3 high pressures
3.4.1.6 A substance that promotes the rate of reaction by providing an alternative reaction pathway, and is regenearated at the end
3.4.1.6.1 Homogeneous Catalysts
3.4.1.6.1.1 Same as the reactants gas or liquid
3.4.1.6.1.2 Not common/Hard to separate
3.4.1.6.1.3 Examples are use of KOH
3.4.1.6.2 Heterogeneous Catalysis
3.4.1.6.2.1 different phase as the reactants solid
3.4.1.6.2.2 Common, as separation is easy
4 Combustion of Natural Gas produce CO2 and water
4.1 Advantages of Burning Natural Gas
4.1.1 Fewer emissions
4.1.2 Reduced sludge from scrubbing SO2
4.2 Gas Burn is determined by
4.2.1 CV , measure of heat released when it is burnt. Measured normally in Btu’s
4.2.1.1 Wobbe Number =(Calorific Value)/√(Specific Gravity)
4.2.1.1.1 same wobbe number ==> same amount of heat
4.2.2 SG, much gas will pass through the orifice of a burner in a set time at a given pressure
4.2.2.1
4.2.3 Burning Velocity Measures the speed at which a flame is propagated in a gas
4.3 Burning Gas problem
4.3.1 Light Back
4.3.2 unstable flame
4.3.3 low flame speed gas
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