Kobe - Japan 1995

jeacur
Mind Map by jeacur, updated more than 1 year ago
jeacur
Created by jeacur almost 7 years ago
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Description

case study for an earthquake in a richer part of the world (haiti is the comparison I use for a poorer area)

Resource summary

Kobe - Japan 1995
1 What?
1.1 5:46 am
1.2 17th January 1995
1.3 Philippines plate shifted underneath Eurasian plate along Nojima fault line beneath Kobe
1.4 10 million people affected
1.5 7.2 richter scale, 20s tremors
1.6 6434 dead, over 40,000 seriously injured, 180,000 houses, 300,000 homeless
2 Why?
2.1 Philippines plate moves towards Eurasian plate and is forced down as is oceanic
2.2 Plates jam together and pressure builds up
2.3 Pressure is suddenly released and plates jerk forwards
2.4 (During the earthquake the ground moved up to 50cm horizontaly and up to 1m vertically)
3 Effects
3.1 Primary
3.1.1 180,000 buildings collapsed
3.1.2 Sections of elevated road collapsed
3.1.3 Bridges collapsed
3.1.4 Railway lines wrecked
3.1.5 At the port, cranes fell and 120/150 quays were destroyed
3.2 Secondary
3.2.1 2 million homes without electricity
3.2.2 1 million without water for 10 days
3.2.3 Fires from gas pipes and electricity cables (damage to roads and water supply sometimes meant impossible to put out fires)
3.2.4 Gridlocked roads delayed ambulances and fire engines
3.2.5 230,000 homeless in temporary shelters with a shortage of blankets, clean water and food
3.2.6 Afraid to return home as 74-716 recorded aftershocks could be felt
3.2.7 $220 billion
3.2.8 Severe damage to industry
3.2.9 Older buildings collapsed but the 'high tech' and "withstanding earthquake construction" Konsair international airport and Akashi bridge were undamaged
4 Responses
4.1 Short term:
4.1.1 Friends and neighbours searched rubble for survivors
4.1.2 200 fires still burning under control 24hrs later
4.1.3 Nothing moved in or out of Kobe by road/rail for 3 days
4.1.4 Hospitals struggled to cope with the many injured
4.1.5 Major retailers such as 7-eleven helped to provide essentials and Motorola provided telephone connections free
4.1.6 300,000 homeless given shelter in -2 degrees
4.2 Long term:
4.2.1 Railways took a long time to open again
4.2.2 Ports took even longer (80% in 1 year)
4.2.3 New laws passed to make buildings and transport more earthquake-proof (further apart, flexible steel frames, houses made from fire resistance materials etc)
4.2.4 Increase in use of seismic instruments
4.2.5 Earthquake drills annually
4.2.6 By July water, electricity, gas and telephone were fully working
4.2.7 4 years later, 134,000 housing units constructed but some still living in temporary housing
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