Biology Y9

joybakare232
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joybakare232
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Biology revision

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Biology Y9
  1. Nature
    1. Kingdoms
      1. Plants
        1. Hvae cells with a definite nucleus, made up of different cells,though not a heterotroph
          1. Herbaceous legume
          2. Animals
            1. Have cells with a definite nucleus, made up of different cells, a heterotroph but doesnt have cell wall, feed by external digestion
              1. Invertabrates
                1. Jelly fish
                2. Vertabrates
                  1. Dog
                3. Fungi
                  1. Found in any habitat, can be single celled or multicellular
                    1. Yeast
                    2. Bacteria
                      1. Does not have cells or a definite nucleus
                        1. Entertis
                        2. Protoctista
                          1. Made up of different cells with a definite nucleus
                            1. Chlorrella
                          2. Viruses
                            1. Ebola
                          3. Movement of substances
                            1. Diffusion
                              1. The net movement of particles of a solute or gas from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration as a result of random movement
                              2. Osmosis
                                1. The diffusion of water molecules from a high concentration of water to a low concentration of water across a partially-permeable membrane
                                  1. Osmosis in cells
                                    1. Cell in a dilute solution becomes TURGID
                                      1. TURGID- Full up with water
                                      2. Cell in concentrated solution become FLACCID
                                        1. Cell not completely full up with water
                                        2. PLASMOLYSED CELL- cytoplasm is pulled away from the wall
                                          1. PLASMOLYSED- Dying from lack of water.
                                      3. Active transport
                                        1. The movement of particles against a concentration gradient and/or across a cell membrane
                                          1. This process uses energy provided by mitochondria, as they carry out the chemical reaction of aerobic respiration
                                            1. Special carrier protein muscles are needed in the membrane
                                        2. Co-ordination and response
                                          1. Homeostasis
                                            1. The maintenance of a constant internal environment
                                            2. Hormones
                                              1. Kidneys
                                                1. Pituitary gland
                                                  1. ADH is made
                                                    1. Controls water absorbed by kidney
                                                2. The Heart/ Blood vessels
                                                  1. Adrenal body (gland)
                                                    1. Adrenaline is made
                                                      1. Prepares body for action (fight or flight)
                                                  2. Liver
                                                    1. Pancreas (gland)
                                                      1. Insuline is made
                                                        1. Contols blood sugar levels
                                                    2. Liver/Kidneys
                                                      1. Thyroid
                                                        1. Thyroxine is made
                                                          1. Metabolic stimulant
                                                    3. Responses
                                                      1. Pin stimulus
                                                        1. Sense organ
                                                          1. Receptor cell
                                                            1. Sensory neurone
                                                              1. Brain
                                                                1. Spinal cord
                                                                  1. Motor neurone
                                                                    1. Response- Reflex reactions
                                                                      1. Laugh
                                                                        1. Cry
                                                                          1. Movement e.g muscle contraction
                                                          2. Sequence of reflex arc
                                                            1. Stimulus is detected by receptors
                                                              1. Signal reacher muscle or gland
                                                                1. Signal passes from relay neurone to motor neurone
                                                                  1. Signal reacher muscle (or gland)
                                                                    1. Muscle responds (or gland releases chemicals)
                                                            2. Photoreceptor
                                                              1. Responds to light
                                                                1. Red cells in retina of eye
                                                              2. Chemoreceptor
                                                                1. Chemicals
                                                                  1. Taste buds
                                                                2. Stimulus- A change in the environment
                                                                  1. Receptor- Recieves stimuli and transdeuces them
                                                                    1. Sensory neurone- Carries info as electrical impulses
                                                                      1. Central nervous system- Understands electrical impulses and decides what to do with them
                                                                    2. The Eye
                                                                      1. Pupil
                                                                        1. Iris
                                                                          1. Cornea
                                                                            1. Aquaeous humor
                                                                              1. Vitraeous humor
                                                                                1. Blind spot
                                                                                  1. Optic nerve
                                                                                    1. Retina
                                                                                      1. Rod cells
                                                                                        1. Cone cells
                                                                                    2. Ecology and environment
                                                                                      1. Where is nitrogen?
                                                                                        1. The air (72%)
                                                                                          1. Hair (cells and cell membranes)
                                                                                            1. Plants
                                                                                              1. Urine
                                                                                                1. Fertilisers
                                                                                                  1. Ammonia
                                                                                                    1. Red blood cells (haemoglobin)
                                                                                                      1. Proteins
                                                                                                        1. DNA
                                                                                                        2. Adding/ Removing carbon dioxide
                                                                                                          1. ADD
                                                                                                            1. Respiration
                                                                                                              1. Combustion
                                                                                                                1. Decomposition
                                                                                                                2. REMOVING
                                                                                                                  1. Photosynthesis
                                                                                                                    1. Fossilisation
                                                                                                                      1. Dissolving carbon dioxide in oceans
                                                                                                                  2. Transport in humans
                                                                                                                    1. ARTERY- Oxygenated blood away from the heart
                                                                                                                      1. VEIN- Deoxygenated blood to the heart
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