Anthropology: Science devoted to the study of human beings and their lifestyles

Katy Escalera
Mind Map by Katy Escalera, updated more than 1 year ago
Katy Escalera
Created by Katy Escalera over 6 years ago
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Anthropology: Science devoted to the study of human beings and their lifestyles
  1. Social Sciences
    1. Geography
      1. History
        1. Economy
          1. Psychology
            1. Sociology
              1. Demography
                1. Population Growth
              2. Anthropological sub-disciplines
                1. Physical anthropology: Studies fossils and disctintive features
                  1. Archaeology: Study of material remains of past cultures
                    1. Anthropological linguistics: Studies diversity of languages, tries to reconstruct them
                      1. Cultural anthropology: Analysis of cultures of human groups
                      2. Key concepts through History
                        1. Enculturation: Learning process of a culture
                          1. Acculturation: Exchange of cultural features
                            1. Society: Group of people who live according to a behaviour to fullfil a purpose
                              1. Ethnocentrism: Judging other cultures using own standards
                                1. State: Political unit with independent goverment, centralized organization
                                  1. Otherness: Notion of the other as interpersonal phenomenon. Helps to create own identity
                                    1. Man: Being with opposable thumbs, intelligence, articulated speech
                                      1. Family
                                        1. Nuclear family: Parents and children, regardless of external factors
                                          1. Extended family: Besides nuclear, all relatives
                                          2. Exogamous marriage: Marrying outside the individuals with which one is related
                                            1. Monogamy: Exclusive couple (male and female)
                                              1. Polygamy: Relationships with a variable number of partners
                                                1. Polyandry: One female with several husbands
                                                  1. Polygyny: One male with several wives
                                                  2. Cultural ecology
                                                2. Anthropological Theories
                                                  1. Historical particularism: Emphasizes particular aspects of singular cultures. No savage cultures
                                                    1. Functionalism: Describes functions of customs and institutions for the sociey studied
                                                      1. Culture and personality: Links cultural practices and beliefs of the individual to personality
                                                        1. Neoevolutionism: Existence of a cultural revolution. Amount of energy put into execution
                                                          1. French structuralism: Explain origin of differences and alikes of a culture
                                                            1. Evolutionist school: History of human societies has developed progressively and continously
                                                              1. Diffusionism: Cultures adopted their elements by imitation
                                                              2. Ethnography: Study that makes an extensive description of all aspects of everyday's life of a culture
                                                                1. Life history
                                                                  1. Pictures and videos
                                                                    1. Semi-structured interview
                                                                      1. Participant observation
                                                                        1. Focus group
                                                                          1. Testimony
                                                                            1. Documents
                                                                              1. Field diary
                                                                                1. Fieldwork: Obtaining the desired information by interacting with the subject of study
                                                                                2. Areas of application
                                                                                  1. Education
                                                                                    1. Urban and Business anthropology
                                                                                      1. Medicine
                                                                                      2. Culture: Traditions and lifestyles acquired by the members of a society
                                                                                        1. Emic: Local meanings. Discovering the local views, beliefs and perspectives
                                                                                          1. Etic: Outsider perspective, emphasizes explanations and categories of observer
                                                                                            1. Magic: Idea that there are hidden powers in nature
                                                                                              1. Myth: Stories that try to recreate the origin of cultures
                                                                                                1. Religion: God is the essence of this belief, concept of soul
                                                                                                  1. Sacred
                                                                                                    1. Profane
                                                                                                      1. Types of Cults
                                                                                                        1. Individualist
                                                                                                          1. Shamanist
                                                                                                            1. Community
                                                                                                              1. Ecclesiastical
                                                                                                          2. Stages of Anthropology
                                                                                                            1. Description of other cultures and reflection on the transformation of their practices
                                                                                                              1. Search of scientific laws of evolution of societies and their institutions
                                                                                                                1. Search for scientific laws of the functioning of species, from divergent approaches
                                                                                                                2. Conclusion
                                                                                                                  1. Troughout this course, I have learned several things. When I heard the word "Anthropology", I always thought about it as something related to fossils and prehistoric civilizations, but no more. I was very wrong. I found out that anthropology is a very important social science, because it allows us not just to know historical data, but also to understand and interpret the behaviour of our past cultures, learn what they were thinking, and why things happened just the way they were.
                                                                                                                    1. I have also learned that anthropology and its concepts can be widely applied in our daily life, because most of the problems that we face each day, can be analyzed using anthropological techniques that are specially designed for each task, and make the data collection be easier. All the information that was gathered while doing these investigations can be later published or be put to disposition of people, in order to be able to know and also to be conscious about the things that happen here and know, and in certain cases, to do something about it.
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