Schizophrenia

din960104
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

A Level Psychology Mind Map on Schizophrenia, created by din960104 on 10/08/2013.

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din960104
Created by din960104 about 6 years ago
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Schizophrenia
1 Types and Symptoms
1.1 Symptoms of schizophrenia
1.1.1 Positive symptoms
1.1.1.1 Delusions

Annotations:

  • Delusions - Highly implausible thoughts that you believe are the activities of those who plot against you/use you
1.1.1.2 Hallucinations

Annotations:

  • Hallucinations - Perceptions in any sensory modality without relevant and adequate external stimuli
1.1.2 Negative symptoms
1.1.2.1 Avolition

Annotations:

  • Patients lack energy and have no interest or ability to go through routine activities
1.1.2.2 Alogia

Annotations:

  • Symptom where poverty of speech and poverty of content can be seen
1.1.2.3 Anhedonia

Annotations:

  • An inability to experience pleasure
1.1.2.4 Asociality

Annotations:

  • Having severe impairments in social relationships - few friends, poor social skills, and little interest in socializing
1.1.2.5 Flat/Blunted Affect

Annotations:

  • No emotional can be elicited from a stimulus
1.1.3 Disorganization
1.1.3.1 Disorganized speech

Annotations:

  • Disorganized speech - Speech found in schizophrenics that is marked by problems in the organization of ideas and in speaking so that others can understand
1.1.4 Other (Catatonic)
1.1.4.1 Catatonia

Annotations:

  • Patients gesture repeatedly with no reason or sometimes just uncontrollably.  In catatonic immobility, patients stay in one position for a long time
1.1.4.2 Waxy flexibility

Annotations:

  • Another person ca move the patients limbs and the patient remains that way for a long time
1.2 Types
1.2.1 Paranoid schizophrenia

Annotations:

  • - Characterized by positive symptoms - Typically experience delusions of persecution or grandeur that are detailed and complex - No disorganization or flat affect
1.2.2 Disorganized schizophrenia

Annotations:

  • - Characterized by silly and incoherent behavior - Disorganized speech (loose associations and derailment) - Disorganized behavior (not goal-directed, neglecting appearance) - Flat or inappropriate affect
1.2.3 Catatonic schizophrenia

Annotations:

  • -Characterized by impairment of body movement - Wild and uncontrolled movement - Immobility or catalepsy (possibly 'waxy flexibility') - Peculiar voluntary movement (bizarre postures or repeated gestures) - Extreme negativism or mutilism - Often echo speech of others
1.2.4 Undifferentiated

Annotations:

  • - Characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia are present, but criteria are not met for any of the other sub types
1.2.5 Residual

Annotations:

  • -Absence of positive symptoms ,symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia, or catatonic behavior - Presence of negative symptoms or presence of other schizophrenia symptoms in lesser form
1.2.6 Limitations of categorizing into types

Annotations:

  • - Lacks precision/reliability - People don't fit neatly into one stubtype - Categorizing people gives little or no indication of:   - Cause   - How it might develop   - Effective treatment
2 Explanations
2.1 Biological
2.1.1 Biochemical
2.1.1.1 Dopamine hypothesis

Annotations:

  • Dopamine hypothesis: the brains of schizophrenic patients are more sensitive to dopamine than the brains of non-schizophrenics
2.1.1.1.1 Studies with drugs

Annotations:

  • - Amphetamines and cocaine increase the level of dopamine in the brain and produces schizophrenic (paranoid) symptoms - When schizophrenics take amphetamines or cocaine, the symptoms worsen - Chlorpromazine (anti-psychotic drug) can reduce symptoms by blocking D2 receptors, but can produce side effects similar to symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
2.1.1.1.1.1 Parkinson's disease

Annotations:

  • - Parkinson's patients have low levels of dopamine - L-dopa can raise dopamine activity - But if too much L-dopa is taken, schizophrenic symptoms can be developed.
2.1.1.1.2 Post mortem studies

Annotations:

  • - Autopsies show that schizophrenics have 6 times more the number of dopamine receptors than normal - Excess of dopamine receptor sites is the same as having high levels of dopamine since the same message is sent too much in both
2.1.1.1.3 PET scans

Annotations:

  • - Radioactive L-Dopa was tracked when absorbed by subject's brain. - L-Dopa taken up quicker in schizophrenics - Suggests that schizophrenics have more receptor sites or have hypersensitive receptors
2.1.1.2 Genetic
2.1.1.2.1 Gottesman & Shields

Annotations:

  • - Examined records of 57 schizophrenics with 40% being monozygotic and 60% being dizygotic. - If pair was discordant, the non-schizophrenic was followed for 13 years - MZ concordance rate was 42% - DZ concordance rate was 9%
2.1.1.2.1.1 Limitations

Annotations:

  • - Since MZ twins probably lived in similar conditions, environmental factors may have had a larger role - MZ twins most likely had similar parenting hence the similarity - Genetic link is shown, but it doesn't explain schizophrenia
2.2 Cognitive

Annotations:

  • - Disturbed thinking processes are the cause of schizophrenia - Physiological abnormalities lead to cognitive malfunctioning - Hallucinations are the most dramatic perception distortions. - They are mostly (74%) auditory - Can be very frightening
2.2.1 Cognitive malfunctionins

Annotations:

  • In a normal brain there is a mechanism that filters incoming stimuli.  A schizophrenic brain's mechanism malfunctions and lets in too much stimuli - cannot focus - unable to interpret information correctly - world is very different
2.2.2 Frith's study

Annotations:

  • -In schizophrenics, there is a disconnection between the pre-frontal cortex that control action and the posterior areas that control perception -PET scans were done during cognitive test to trace radioactive glucose -In schizophrenics, the prefrontal cortex showed low activation -Schizophrenics performed poorly on the cognitive tests
2.2.2.1 Frith's model of psychosis

Annotations:

  • Because of the disconnection, patients experience: - Inability to generate willed action - Inability to monitor willed action - Inability to monitor the beliefs and intentions of others
2.2.3 Limitations

Annotations:

  • - Cannot explain the cause of schizophrenia. The symptoms can be explained, but no cause is given - Too deterministic. cognitive impairments = mental disorders
3 Treatments
3.1 Biological
3.1.1 Antipsychotics
3.1.1.1 Typical

Annotations:

  • - The first generation of antipsychotics developed in the 1950s - Block dopamine receptors - Positive symptoms are treated, but negative symptoms are not - Many side effects - 30% don't respond
3.1.1.2 Atypical

Annotations:

  • - Newer generation of antipsychotics developed during the 1990s - Atypicals attach to specific dopamine receptors - Effective for positive symptoms and has some effect on negative symptoms  - Fewer side effects
3.1.2 Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT)

Annotations:

  • - Electric shocks are used to cause  seizure where a 'rush' of chemical neurotransmitters is released and temporarily alters function. - 3-4 times  week for max. 12 treatments - Sleep is induced  - Muscle relaxant used - Only for catatonic symptoms and only when drug treatments have failed - Side effects of temporary short term memory loss, confusion, paranoia, nausea, muscle aches and headache.
3.2 Psychological
3.2.1 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Annotations:

  • Based on the idea that most unwanted thinking patterns, and emotional and behavioral reactions are learnt over a long period of time - Restructures patient's perception to a more normal view - Usually done alongside drug treatment - Changes patient's faulty way of thinking - Teaches patients recognize inapproproate affect and test delusional beliefs -Treats symptoms and not the cause
3.2.2 Behavioral Therapy

Annotations:

  • Based on operant conditioning (learning through reinforcement)
3.2.2.1 Token Economies

Annotations:

  • - Helps people in psychiatric institutions to perform socially desirable behaviors
3.2.2.1.1 Paul and Lentz

Annotations:

  • Paul and Lentz used token economies and behavior modification to reinforce socially acceptable behavior

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