Textiles (1)

Millie Fenner
Mind Map by Millie Fenner, updated more than 1 year ago
Millie Fenner
Created by Millie Fenner over 6 years ago


Mind Map on Textiles (1), created by Millie Fenner on 04/30/2015.

Resource summary

Textiles (1)
  1. Fibres
    1. Long fibres
      1. These are called filament fibres
        1. They are smooth
        2. Short Fibres
          1. These are called staples
            1. They are hairy when spun into yarn
            2. Natural Fibres
              1. Come from animals
                1. E.g wool or silk
                2. Come from plants
                  1. E.g cotton, linen or hemp
                3. Man made fibres
                  1. These are called synthetics
                    1. They are made from polymers, extracted from coal and oil.
                      1. Some synthetic fibres are polyester, nylon or acrylic
                      2. Regenerated fibres
                        1. regenerated fibre is fibre that is produced from raw materials that form fibres naturally.
                          1. E.g wool pulp or cotten linter
                          2. Fibres are woven, kitted, felted or bonded into fabrics
                            1. Woven Fabrics
                                1. Yarn strength: warp yarns are stronger compared to weft
                                2. Selvedge is where the fabric is double-back to prevent fraying
                          3. Properties of fabrics
                            1. Cotton
                              1. Cool to wear
                                1. Very absorbent / dries slowly
                                  1. Soft handle
                                    1. Good drape
                                      1. Durable
                                        1. Creases easily
                                          1. Can be washed and ironed
                                            1. E.g jeans, t-shirts and towels
                                            2. Linen
                                              1. Fresh and cool to wear
                                                1. Very absorbent / dries slowly
                                                  1. Stiffer handle
                                                    1. Good drape
                                                      1. Durable
                                                        1. Creases badly
                                                          1. Can be washed and ironed
                                                            1. E.g summer clothing, tea towels and table clothes
                                                            2. Wool
                                                              1. Warm to wear
                                                                1. Absorbent / dries slowly
                                                                  1. Breathable / repels rain
                                                                    1. Soft or coarse to handle
                                                                      1. Can shrink, should be dry cleaned
                                                                        1. Good drape
                                                                          1. Not durable
                                                                            1. Creases drop out
                                                                              1. E.g jumpers, suits and blankets
                                                                              2. Silk
                                                                                1. Warm to wear
                                                                                  1. Absorbent
                                                                                    1. Soft handle
                                                                                      1. Good lustre and drape
                                                                                        1. Durable
                                                                                          1. Creases drop out
                                                                                            1. Dry clean
                                                                                              1. E.g evening wear and ties
                                                                                              2. Polyester
                                                                                                1. E.g raincoats, fleece jackets, children's nightwear, medical textiles and working clothes
                                                                                                  1. Low warmth
                                                                                                    1. Non-absorbent, dries quickly
                                                                                                      1. Soft handle
                                                                                                        1. Good drape
                                                                                                          1. Easy care
                                                                                                            1. very durable
                                                                                                              1. Crease resistant
                                                                                                                1. Can be recycled
                                                                                                              2. Care Labels
                                                                                                                  1. What to include on a care label
                                                                                                                    1. Fibre content (50% cotton 50% lycra)
                                                                                                                      1. Product details (size, type, style)
                                                                                                                        1. Country of origin (made in chine)
                                                                                                                          1. which standards the products meet (faitrade)
                                                                                                                            1. Safety advice (keep away from fire)
                                                                                                                              1. Care instructions (how its washed, dried, ironed etc)
                                                                                                                            2. Fabric finishes
                                                                                                                              1. Physical finishes
                                                                                                                                1. Brushing
                                                                                                                                  1. Wire rollers brush the surface of the fabric
                                                                                                                                    1. Fabric has a napped (raised) surface and handle is softer)
                                                                                                                                    2. Embossing
                                                                                                                                      1. Engraved rollers create relief pattern on the fabric
                                                                                                                                        1. Texture and appearance change to the pattern of embossing
                                                                                                                                        2. Calendering
                                                                                                                                          1. Heavy rollers press the surface of the fabric
                                                                                                                                            1. Fabric is smoother and has improved sheen
                                                                                                                                            2. Pressing
                                                                                                                                              1. Presses smooth the surface of the fabric
                                                                                                                                                1. There is improved handle and a smoother surface. Pressing is often on wool fabrics
                                                                                                                                                2. Shrinkage
                                                                                                                                                  1. Fabric is steamed and placed over a vibrating conveyor belt
                                                                                                                                                    1. This reduces further shrinkage later (in use and care)
                                                                                                                                                    2. Permanent creases
                                                                                                                                                      1. Fabric is moistened with steam, then dried with powerful drier's while pressure is applied
                                                                                                                                                        1. Puts a permanent crease in centre front and centre back of trouser legs. Handle of fabric is not affected and ironing is easier
                                                                                                                                                      2. Chemical finishes
                                                                                                                                                        1. Water repellent
                                                                                                                                                          1. Silicone is sprayed onto the fabric surface
                                                                                                                                                            1. Droplets of water remain on the surface; air can pass through. This is not waterproofing and fabric will let water through if saturated
                                                                                                                                                            2. Stain resistant
                                                                                                                                                              1. Stain-resistant resins are applied to the surface of the fabric (e.g. Teflon)
                                                                                                                                                                1. Dirt is prevented from clinging to the surface
                                                                                                                                                                2. Crease resistant
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Resins are applied to the fabric
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Fabric are crisper but crease less
                                                                                                                                                                    2. Flame Resistant
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Chemicals are applied to yarn and fabric
                                                                                                                                                                        1. This prevents fabrics from easily igniting
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Shrink Resistant
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Fibre scales (found on wool) are removed with chlorine, or resins block the scales.
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Shrinkage in washing is reduced; used in wool products
                                                                                                                                                                            2. Anti-Allergen
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Chemicals such as Chitosan are applied to the fibre or fabric
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Reduces irritant from the fibres and doesn't change the appearance or handle of the fabric.
                                                                                                                                                                            3. Decorative techniques
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Dying
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Tie dye
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Tritik
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Batik
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Saturation
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Fabric paints, crayons
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Appliqué
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Printing
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Block
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Stencils
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Screen
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Sublimation
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Iron transfers
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Machine and hand embroidery
                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. Components
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Buttons
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Sequins and beads
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Decorative trims
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Fringe and tassels
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Lace trims
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Metal components
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Zips
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Seams and Hems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. French seam are used for delicate fabrics like underwear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Flat-Felled seam used on jeans or trousers to make the seam stronger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Plain or open seam used for prototypes as its easy to unpick
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Tuned hem which is visible on the outside of the garment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Blind hem is invisible an can be hand sewn or machine stitched.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Ways of neatening a seam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Binding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Pinking shears
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Over locker or zig-zag stitch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Turned edges
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Blanket stitch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Construction Techniques
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Darts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. A way of shaping a fabric to the contours of the body
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Box Pleat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Fabric is turned in on itself. Used to add value
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Knife Pleat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Fabric is folded in the same direction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Gather
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Used to add volume and shape the garment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Tacking Stitch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Used to hold two pieces together temporarily. Use a contrasting thread
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Interfacing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Stiffen fabric, such as the interfacing used in shirt collars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Strengthen a certain area of the fabric, for instance where buttonholes will be seen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Keep fabrics from stretching out of shape.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Prototype
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Definition = a prototype of toile is a mock up of a product.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. It is usually produced from a cheap fabric such as calico (canvas). this will develop form your design ideas and specification. you will make a prototype at full scale before you make the final product.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. How can you test a prototype?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Try it on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Safety Testing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Test the products care e.g washing the component
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Checking it against the specification
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Why would you test a prototype?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. To check the manufacturing process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Size testing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Testing fitness for purpose
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Obtaining customer feedback
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. What faults could you find out from testing your prototype?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Incorrect size or shape
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Incorrect seam allowance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Faulty stitching
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Accidental damage - this could be from the machinery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. What is quality assurance/control?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Quality assurance is all the steps put in place through design and manufacture to ensure your product is the best that it can be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. How to write a specification
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. ACCESS FM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. A - aesthetics (meaning appearance)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. C - cost (meaning price range)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. C - customer (meaning the person who wants to buy it)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. E - environment (meaning where it is used and how eco-friendly it is)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. S - safety (meaning how safe it is)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. S - size (meaning how big it is)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. F - function (meaning what job it does)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. M - materials (meaning what materials would you need to make it)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Aesthetics, cost, customer, environment, safety, size, function and materials
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Production methods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. One-off production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. In one-off production a single product is designed and made to a client's specification. Labour and materials costs are high, and a high level of design and manufacturing skills are needed. E.g a wedding dress
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Off the peg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. A ready made garment in standard sizes. One standard size template
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Sub assembly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. A pre made collection of parts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Consistent quality, may be fewer faults
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Speeds up production process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Specialist machinery and specially trained machinists can be used in certain stages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Can be bought in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. May be on a separate line of manufacture that feeds into the main production.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Batch Production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. In batch production set qualities of a product are manufactured to order. Batch production requires a high level of design, pattern making and sampling skills. materials are cost-effective and manufacturing costs are lower than one-off production. Garments are designed to fit a range of standard sizes and shapes. the quantity varies from a set of four cushions made by a designer/maker to 20,000 jumpers made for a department store.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Mass Production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Mass production is the industrial-scale manufacture of large quantities of products, usually on a production line. Standardised production methods mean it is suitable for products that rarely need to be redesigned. Mass production is used for products that are needed in very large numbers, E.g socks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Ethical Textiles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Fair trade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. A consumer label that guarantees a stable price for products and a fair wage for workers in less developed countries.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Ethical trade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. The buying and selling of goods and services from businesses that are morally and socially responsible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Life cycle analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Looking at all the stages in the life of a product in order to find out information about how it is made, used and disposed of.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Landfill site
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. A large excavated area where rubbish is dumped, and then covered with earth once full.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. Sustainability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Why should we use sustainable design?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. A better quality of life for us all
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Cleaner environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Waste less
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Pollute less
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Create fun ideas and products for society
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Looking after our planet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Re = THINKING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Concerns for Global Climate Change
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. The 6 R's
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Repair
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. When a product breaks down or doesn't work properly try to fix it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Reuse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Use a product to make something else with all or parts of old products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Rethink
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Do we make too many products? Design in a way that considers people and the environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Reduce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Cut down the amount of material and energy you use as much as you can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Refuse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Don't use a material or buy a product if you don't need it or if it is bad for the environment or people
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Recycle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Reprocess a product or material to make something else
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. Environment issues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. We use energy in everything we do
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. The product of textile products adds to pollution in manufacture, distribution and use
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Energy used in making textile products creates CO" and contributes to global warming.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Global warming
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. When we burn fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas, petrol and diesel), carbon dioxide is released.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. This carbon dioxide traps the sun's heat in the atmosphere leading to an increase in temperatures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. The more products we want, the more energy we use to produce and transport them. So we produce more CO".
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. It has been calculated that if everyone on earth lived the lifestyle of people in developed nations then we would need at least 3 planets to meet our needs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. What has this got to do with textiles?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. The desire to be 'in fashion' creates a vast market for new products. People buy new clothes because they want them, not because they really need them. in developing countries we only actually wear about 20% of the clothes we own, the rest remain at the back of our wardrobes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. 70% of the world's population has no access to new clothing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. New products use up huge resources of raw materials and energy in their design, manufacture, distribution, sale and use.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. The manufacturing of synthetic fibres such as polyester and nylon uses up oil and creates toxic pollutants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Cleaning fibres, dyeing, bleaching and finishing fabrics requires vast quantities of water and energy and often causes pollution from chemicals used.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Transporting raw materials and components to factories, and finished goods to shops, adds to global warming through the CO" emissions of vehicles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. How can you help?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Wash at 30c to reduce energy requirements and CO" emissions. Doing this could help prevent the effect of global warming.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Why not fur?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Cruel to animals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Threat to endangered species
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Unethical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Interruption of natural foo chain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Animal rights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Opposition to hunting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. CAD & CAM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. CAM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Machines and processes that are controlled and programmed by computers to do a whole range of product processes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Advantages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. The results are consistent (always the same)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Enables very high accuracy levels.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Speeds up production of products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Complicated shapes can be cut more easily by machine than by hand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Quick changes/modifications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. The software itself is expensive so initial costs are high.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Staff need to be trained how to use the software and machinery, which adds to costs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Can be complicated - scared of ICT!
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. CAD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. There are systems for creating, modifying and communicating ideas for a product.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. It includes the computer aided design of the pattern pieces and lay plan for a product too.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Laser Cutter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Used lots in schools
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Accurate and detailed designs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Can be used to cut - sheet plastic, wood, fabric, metals and paper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Quick designed and prototyping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Show full summary Hide full summary


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